Wireless ac

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If you’ve been down to your local Best Buy lately, you might have noticed that a whole new class of wireless routers are on the market on the premium end of the product scale, emblazoned with an “802.11ac” label in bright letters on the front of the box.

But what does 802.11ac mean, and is it really necessary for you to get the most out of your daily WiFi browsing experience? Read on as we clear up the confusion around this confounding wireless networking standard and tell you everything you need to know about the newest devices that can support it in 2016.

802.11 Explained

RELATED:Upgrade Your Wireless Router to Get Faster Speeds and More Reliable Wi-Fi

Whenever you buy a new router, the first thing you probably notice is that no matter which model you eventually go with, they all share the denotation of “802.11(something)” somewhere in their name. Without getting too deep with the technical details, what you’ll want to pay attention to is the letter that follows after this number, which signifies both the generation of the router and the maximum speed you can hope to transmit or receive between the base station and other wireless devices.

You can read about what all of these mean in our handy guide here, but to cut to the chase the only two we’ll be talking about today are 802.11n, and 802.11ac. To start, it helps to know that on the whole most routers made within the past five years will support 802.11n, which at its peak can transfer upwards of 450Mbits/s, or around 56 megabytes per second. This, of course, is the theoretical max point for the technology achieved in carefully controlled lab settings, but it’s still plenty fast enough for the average household to run multiple Netflix streams or gaming sessions at a time without anyone noticing a slowdown.

802.11ac on the other hand is quite a bit newer, having only been approved by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) for consumers in 2014. Theoretically capable of maxing out at a whopping 1.3Gbits per second (162.5 MB/s), the throughput of an ac-enabled router is more than double what you can expect with the more common 802.11n. Also, it’s important to note that opposed to 802.11n, 802.11ac can only transmit over the 5Ghz spectrum. As we explain in this article, while the 2.4Ghz band is much more crowded than 5Ghz and can suffer from increased interference, its larger wavelength allows it to penetrate walls over longer distances without much signal loss.

This means that if your router sits a number of rooms or floors away from your wireless devices, it may not be the best pick for your household despite the possible increased throughput.

802.11ac Routers: Do I Need One Yet?

Because 802.11ac was only approved for the consumer market so recently, router manufacturers have just begun the process of flooding the shelves down at your local Best Buy with wireless networking hubs that bear the new brand.

RELATED:HTG Reviews the D-Link AC3200 Ultra Wi-Fi Router: A Speedy Spaceship for Your Wi-Fi Needs

To know that a router is ac-ready, simply look at the name of the model to learn everything you need to know about what kind of power you should expect straight out of the box. For the time being, all routers featuring 802.11ac will have an “ac” stashed somewhere in its name (the Asus RT-AC3200, D-Link AC3200, etc). On average you can expect to pay anywhere from $150 – $400 for an 802.11ac router, which is a high price for users who might only have one or two devices in the house that are actually capable of tuning into the channel in the first place.

Right now, the crux of buying an 802.11ac router is that only the most current wireless devices even know how to decode its signal. For example, both the iPhone 6 and 6s are equipped to handle an 802.11ac signal…but when was the last time you found yourself struggling with the fact that 802.11n only transmits at a ‘mere’ 56 megabytes per second?

802.11ac will be great as soon as everyone in the house wants their own private 4K movie on laptops or streaming devices that are capable of handling that much bandwidth over the air, but until then, it seems it’s simply a luxury for those who have the hottest devices equipped with the latest and greatest in WiFi technology.

Conclusion

So, do you really need an 802.11ac router just yet? (Probably) not. If you’re somehow streaming 4K videos to your iPhone through a central media server or have an ultrabook that was released in the past six months then yes, you can receive an ac signal and obviously have enough reasons to put it to work.

That said, unless you’re one of the lucky few customers to have fiber optic lines in their home that actually receive broadband speeds above the 150Mbit limit, your standard b/g/n router should be able to handle the job just fine. They’re a heck of a lot cheaper than 802.11ac routers, compatible with both the 2.4Ghz and 5Ghz spectrum, and run almost all of the current heavy-load applications (gaming, streaming, downloading) without breaking a sweat.

Our recommendation is to wait this one out another year or two once the rest of the wireless networking community catches up to the trend that 802.11ac routers are just starting to dip their toes into. If you have the spare cash on hand and just can’t get enough of routers that look like they were designed by Bruce Wayne, then it’s a worthy investment that’s just about as “future-proof” as they come. If you just need something that delivers solid performance at a discount however, there are still plenty of 802.11n models out there that will get the job done just fine.

Image Credits: Wikimedia, D-Link, Asus

Sours: https://www.howtogeek.com/234751/what-is-802.11ac-and-do-i-need-it/

IEEE 802.11ac-2013

Wireless networking standard in the 802.11 family

IEEE 802.11ac-2013 or 802.11ac is a wireless networking standard in the 802.11 set of protocols (which is part of the Wi-Fi networking family), providing high-throughput wireless local area networks (WLANs) on the 5 GHz band.[a] The standard has been retroactively labelled as Wi-Fi 5 by Wi-Fi Alliance.[1][2]

The specification has multi-station throughput of at least 1.1 gigabit per second (1.1 Gbit/s) and single-link throughput of at least 500 megabits per second (0.5 Gbit/s).[3] This is accomplished by extending the air-interface concepts embraced by 802.11n: wider RF bandwidth (up to 160 MHz), more MIMOspatial streams (up to eight), downlink multi-user MIMO (up to four clients), and high-density modulation (up to 256-QAM).[4][5]

The Wi-Fi Alliance separated the introduction of ac wireless products into two phases ("waves"), named "Wave 1" and "Wave 2".[6][7] From mid-2013, the alliance started certifying Wave 1 802.11ac products shipped by manufacturers, based on the IEEE 802.11ac Draft 3.0 (the IEEE standard was not finalized until later that year).[8] Subsequently in 2016, Wi-Fi Alliance introduced the Wave 2 certification, which includes additional features like MU-MIMO (down-link only), 160 MHz channel width support, support for more 5 GHz channels, and four spatial streams (with four antennas; compared to three in Wave 1 and 802.11n, and eight in IEEE's 802.11ax specification).[9] It meant Wave 2 products would have higher bandwidth and capacity than Wave 1 products.[10]

New technologies[edit]

New technologies introduced with 802.11ac include the following:[5][11]

  • Extended channel binding
    • Optional 160 MHz and mandatory 80 MHz channel bandwidth for stations; cf. 40 MHz maximum in 802.11n.
  • More MIMO spatial streams
    • Support for up to eight spatial streams (vs. four in 802.11n)
  • Downlink multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO, allows up to four simultaneous downlink MU-MIMO clients)
    • Multiple STAs, each with one or more antennas, transmit or receive independent data streams simultaneously.
    • Downlink MU-MIMO (one transmitting device, multiple receiving devices) included as an optional mode.
  • Modulation
    • 256-QAM, rate 3/4 and 5/6, added as optional modes (vs. 64-QAM, rate 5/6 maximum in 802.11n).
    • Some vendors offer a non-standard 1024-QAM mode, providing 25% higher data rate compared to 256-QAM
  • Other elements/features
    • Beamforming with standardized sounding and feedback for compatibility between vendors (non-standard in 802.11n made it hard for beamforming to work effectively between different vendor products)
    • MAC modifications (mostly to support above changes)
    • Coexistence mechanisms for 20, 40, 80, and 160 MHz channels, 11ac and 11a/n devices
    • Adds four new fields to the PPDU header identifying the frame as a very high throughput (VHT) frame as opposed to 802.11n's high throughput (HT) or earlier. The first three fields in the header are readable by legacy devices to allow coexistence

Features[edit]

Mandatory[edit]

Optional[edit]

  • Borrowed from the 802.11n specification:
  • Newly introduced by the 802.11ac specification:
    • five to eight spatial streams
    • 160 MHz channel bandwidths (contiguous 80+80)
    • 80+80 MHz channel bonding (discontiguous 80+80)
    • MCS 8/9 (256-QAM)

New scenarios and configurations[edit]

The single-link and multi-station enhancements supported by 802.11ac enable several new WLAN usage scenarios, such as simultaneous streaming of HD video to multiple clients throughout the home, rapid synchronization and backup of large data files, wireless display, large campus/auditorium deployments, and manufacturing floor automation.[12]

With the inclusion of USB 3.0 interface, 802.11ac access points and routers can use locally attached storage to provide various services that fully utilize their WLAN capacities, such as video streaming, FTP servers, and personal cloud services.[13] With storage locally attached through USB 2.0, filling the bandwidth made available by 802.11ac was not easily accomplished.

Example configurations[edit]

All rates assume 256-QAM, rate 5/6:

ScenarioTypical client
form factor
PHY link rateAggregate
capacity
(speed)
One-antenna AP, one-antenna STA, 80 MHzHandheld433 Mbit/s433 Mbit/s
Two-antenna AP, two-antenna STA, 80 MHzTablet, laptop867 Mbit/s867 Mbit/s
One-antenna AP, one-antenna STA, 160 MHzHandheld867 Mbit/s867 Mbit/s
Three-antenna AP, three-antenna STA, 80 MHzLaptop, PC1.30 Gbit/s1.30 Gbit/s
Two-antenna AP, two-antenna STA, 160 MHzTablet, laptop1.73 Gbit/s1.73 Gbit/s
Four-antenna AP, four one-antenna STAs, 160 MHz
(MU-MIMO)
Handheld867 Mbit/s to each STA3.39 Gbit/s
Eight-antenna AP, 160 MHz (MU-MIMO)
  • one four-antenna STA
  • one two-antenna STA
  • two one-antenna STAs
Digital TV, Set-top Box,
Tablet, Laptop, PC, Handheld
  • 3.47 Gbit/s to four-antenna STA
  • 1.73 Gbit/s to two-antenna STA
  • 867 Mbit/s to each one-antenna STA
6.93 Gbit/s
Eight-antenna AP, four 2-antenna STAs, 160 MHz
(MU-MIMO)
Digital TV, tablet, laptop, PC1.73 Gbit/s to each STA6.93 Gbit/s

Wave 1 vs. Wave 2[edit]

Wave 2, referring to products introduced in 2016, offers a higher throughput than legacy Wave 1 products, those introduced starting in 2013. The maximum physical layer theoretical rate for Wave 1 is 1.3 Gbit/s, while Wave 2 can reach 2.34 Gbit/s. Wave 2 can therefore achieve 1 Gbit/s even if the real world throughput turns out to be only 50% of the theoretical rate. Wave 2 also supports a higher number of connected devices.[10]

Data rates and speed[edit]

MCS
index[b]
Spatial
Streams
Modulation
type
Coding
rate
Data rate (Mbit/s)[14]
20 MHz channels 40 MHz channels 80 MHz channels 160 MHz channels
800 ns GI400 ns GI 800 ns GI400 ns GI 800 ns GI400 ns GI 800 ns GI400 ns GI
01BPSK1/26.57.213.51529.332.558.565
11QPSK1/21314.4273058.565117130
21QPSK3/419.521.740.54587.897.5175.5195
3116-QAM1/22628.95460117130234260
4116-QAM3/43943.38190175.5195351390
5164-QAM2/35257.8108120234260468520
6164-QAM3/458.565121.5135263.3292.5526.5585
7164-QAM5/66572.2135150292.5325585650
81256-QAM3/47886.7162180351390702780
91256-QAM5/6N/AN/A180200390433.3780866.7
02BPSK1/21314.4273058.565117130
12QPSK1/22628.95460117130234260
22QPSK3/43943.38190175.5195351390
3216-QAM1/25257.8108120234260468520
4216-QAM3/47886.7162180351390702780
5264-QAM2/3104115.62162404685209361040
6264-QAM3/4117130.3243270526.558510531170
7264-QAM5/6130144.427030058565011701300
82256-QAM3/4156173.332436070278014041560
92256-QAM5/6N/AN/A360400780866.715601733.3
03BPSK1/219.521.740.54587.897.5175.5195
13QPSK1/23943.38190175.5195351390
23QPSK3/458.565121.5135263.3292.5526.5585
3316-QAM1/27886.7162180351390702780
4316-QAM3/4117130243270526.558510531170
5364-QAM2/3156173.332436070278014041560
6364-QAM3/4175.5195364.5405N/AN/A1579.51755
7364-QAM5/6195216.7405450877.597517551950
83256-QAM3/42342604865401053117021062340
93256-QAM5/6260288.954060011701300 2340 2600
0 4 BPSK 1/2 26 28.8 54 60 117.2 130 234 260
1 4 QPSK 1/2 52 57.6 108 120 234 260 468 520
2 4 QPSK 3/4 78 86.8 162 180 351.2 390 702 780
3 4 16-QAM 1/2 104 115.6 216 240 468 520 936 1040
4 4 16-QAM 3/4 156 173.2 324 360 702 780 1404 1560
5 4 64-QAM 2/3 208 231.2 432 480 936 1040 1872 2080
6 4 64-QAM 3/4 234 260 486 540 1053.2 1170 2106 2340
7 4 64-QAM 5/6 260 288.8 540 600 1170 1300 2340 2600
8 4 256-QAM 3/4 312 346.8 648 720 1404 1560 2808 3120
9 4 256-QAM 5/6N/AN/A 720 800 1560 1733.3 3120 3466.7

Several companies are currently offering 802.11ac chipsets with higher modulation rates: MCS-10 and MCS-11 (1024-QAM), supported by Quantenna and Broadcom. Although technically not part of 802.11ac, these new MCS indices are expected to become official in the 802.11ax standard (~2019), the successor to 802.11ac.

160 MHz channels, and thus the throughput might be unusable in some countries/regions due to regulatory issues that allocated some frequencies for other purposes.

Advertised speeds[edit]

802.11ac-class device wireless speeds are often advertised as AC followed by a number, that number being the highest link rates in Mbit/s of all the simultaneously-usable radios in the device added up. For example, an AC1900 access point might have 600 Mbit/s capability on its 2.4 GHz radio and 1300 Mbit/s capability on its 5 GHz radio. No single client device could connect and achieve 1900 Mbit/s of throughput, but separate devices each connecting to the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz radios could achieve combined throughput approaching 1900 Mbit/s. Different possible stream configurations can add up to the same AC number.

Type2.4 GHz band[a]
Mbit/s
2.4 GHz band config
[all 40 MHz]
5 GHz band
Mbit/s
5 GHz band config
[all 80 MHz]
AC450[15]--4331 stream @ MCS 9
AC6001501 stream @ MCS 74331 stream @ MCS 9
AC7503002 streams @ MCS 74331 stream @ MCS 9
AC1000 300 2 streams @ MCS 7 650 2 streams @ MCS 7
AC12003002 streams @ MCS 78672 streams @ MCS 9
AC13004002 streams @ 256-QAM8672 streams @ MCS 9
AC1300[16]--1,3003 streams @ MCS 9
AC1350[17]4503 streams @ MCS 78672 streams @ MCS 9
AC14504503 streams @ MCS 79753 streams @ MCS 7
AC16003002 streams @ MCS 71,3003 streams @ MCS 9
AC17008004 streams @ 256-QAM8672 streams @ MCS 9
AC17504503 streams @ MCS 71,3003 streams @ MCS 9
AC1900600[c]3 streams @ 256-QAM1,3003 streams @ MCS 9
AC21008004 streams @ 256-QAM1,3003 streams @ MCS 9
AC22004503 streams @ MCS 71,7334 streams @ MCS 9
AC23006004 streams @ MCS 71,6253 streams @ 1024-QAM
AC24006004 streams @ MCS 71,7334 streams @ MCS 9
AC2600800[c]4 streams @ 256-QAM1,7334 streams @ MCS 9
AC2900750[d]3 streams @ 1024-QAM2,1674 streams @ 1024-QAM
AC30004503 streams @ MCS 71,300 + 1,3003 streams @ MCS 9 x 2
AC31501000[d]4 streams @ 1024-QAM2,1674 streams @ 1024-QAM
AC3200600[c]3 streams @ 256-QAM1,300 + 1,300[e]3 streams @ MCS 9 x 2
AC50006004 streams @ MCS 72,167 + 2,1674 streams @ 1024-QAM x 2
AC5300[20]1000[d]4 streams @ 1024-QAM2,167 + 2,1674 streams @ 1024-QAM x 2

Products[edit]

Commercial routers and access points[edit]

Quantenna released the first 802.11ac chipset for retail Wi-Fi routers and consumer electronics on November 15, 2011.[21] Redpine Signals released the first low power 802.11ac technology for smartphone application processors on December 14, 2011.[22] On January 5, 2012, Broadcom announced its first 802.11ac Wi-Fi chips and partners[23] and on April 27, 2012, Netgear announced the first Broadcom-enabled router.[24] On May 14, 2012, Buffalo Technology released the world’s first 802.11ac products to market, releasing a wireless router and client bridge adapter.[25] On December 6, 2012, Huawei announced commercial availability of the industry's first enterprise-level 802.11ac Access Point.[26]

Motorola Solutions is selling 802.11ac access points including the AP 8232.[27] In April 2014, Hewlett-Packard started selling the HP 560 access point in the controller-based WLAN enterprise market segment.[28]

Commercial laptops[edit]

On June 7, 2012, it was reported that Asus had unveiled its ROG G75VX gaming notebook, which would be the first consumer-oriented notebook to be fully compliant with 802.11ac[29] (albeit in its "draft 2.0" version).

Apple began implementing 802.11ac starting with the MacBook Air in June 2013,[30][31] followed by the MacBook Pro and Mac Pro later that year.[32][33]

As of December 2013[update], Hewlett-Packard incorporates 802.11ac compliance in laptop computers.[34]

Commercial handsets (partial list)[edit]

VendorModelRelease DateChipsetNotes
HTCOne (M7)March 22, 2013BCM4335 [35]First 802.11ac-enabled handset announced February 19, 2013[36]
SamsungGalaxy S4April 26, 2013BCM4335 [37]
SamsungGalaxy Note 3September 25, 2013BCM4339 [38]Subsequent Devices Include 802.11ac
LGLG Nexus 5October 2013[39]BCM4339 [40]BCM4339 is the updated version of the BCM4335
NokiaLumia 1520November 2013[41]WCN3680First 802.11ac-enabled Windows Phone
NokiaLumia IconFebruary 20, 2014[42]WCN3680Lumia 930 is Europe version of the same phone, also with 802.11ac
HTCOne (M8)March 25, 2014WCN3680 [43]
SamsungGalaxy S5April 11, 2014BCM4354[44]
LGG2September 18, 2013AWL9581 [45]
LGG3May 23, 2014BCM4339 [46]
Amazon.comFire PhoneJuly 25, 2014 [47]WCN3680 [48]
SamsungGalaxy S5 Prime/SM-G906SJune 18, 2014QCA6174
SamsungGalaxy AlphaSeptember 7, 2014E702A7[49]
AppleiPhone 6/PlusSeptember 19, 2014BCM4345[50]First 802.11ac-enabled iOS devices
MotorolaNexus 6October 16, 2014BCM4356[51]
SamsungGalaxy Note 4October 10, 2014BCM4358[52]
SamsungGalaxy Note 5August 21, 2015BCM4359 [53]

Commercial tablets[edit]

Chipsets[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ab802.11ac only specifies operation in the 5 GHz band. Operation in the 2.4 GHz band is specified by 802.11n.
  2. ^MCS 9 is not applicable to all channel width/spatial stream combinations.
  3. ^ abcWith 802.11n, 600 Mbit/s in the 2.4 GHz band can be achieved by using four spatial streams at 150 Mbit/s each. As of December 2014[update], commercially available devices that achieve 600 Mbit/s in the 2.4 GHz band use 3 spatial streams at 200 Mbit/s each.[18][19] This requires the use of 256-QAM modulation, which is not compliant with 802.11n and can be considered a proprietary extension.[19]
  4. ^ abcWith proprietary extension to 802.11n, using 40MHz channel in 2.4GHz, 400ns guard interval, 1024-QAM, and 4 spatial streams.
  5. ^As of December 2014[update], commercially available AC3200 devices use two separate radios with 1,300 Mbit/s each to achieve 2,600 Mbit/s total in the 5 GHz band.

References[edit]

  1. ^"Wi-Fi Alliance® introduces Wi-Fi 6".
  2. ^Shankland, Stephen (2018-10-03). "Here come Wi-Fi 4, 5 and 6 in plan to simplify 802.11 networking names - The Wi-Fi Alliance wants to make wireless networks easier to understand and recognize". CNET. Retrieved 2020-02-13.
  3. ^Van Nee, Richard (2011). "Breaking the Gigabit-per-second barrier with 802.11ac". IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine.
  4. ^Kassner, Michael (2013-06-18). "Cheat sheet: What you need to know about 802.11ac". TechRepublic. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
  5. ^ ab"802.11ac: A Survival Guide". Chimera.labs.oreilly.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  6. ^"802.11AC WAVE 2 A XIRRUS WHITE PAPER"(PDF).
  7. ^"802.11ac Wi-Fi Part 2: Wave 1 and Wave 2 Products".
  8. ^"802.11ac: The Fifth Generation of Wi-Fi Technical White Paper"(PDF). Cisco. March 2014.
  9. ^"Wi-Fi Alliance launches 802.11ac Wave 2 certification". RCR Wireless. 29 June 2016.
  10. ^ ab"6 things you need to know about 802.11ac Wave 2". techrepublic.com. 2016-07-13. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
  11. ^Bejarano, Oscar; Knightly, Edward; Park, Minyoung (2013-10-08). "IEEE 802.11ac: from channelization to multi-user MIMO". IEEE Communications Magazine. 51 (10): 84–90. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2013.6619570.
  12. ^de Vegt, Rolf (2008-11-10). "802.11ac Usage Models Document".
  13. ^"ASUS RT-AC56U & USB-AC56 802.11AC Review". Hardwarecanucks.com. Archived from the original on 2014-04-24. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  14. ^"IEEE Std 802.11ac™-2013 - 22.5 Parameters for VHT-MCSs"(PDF). IEEE. 2013-12-11. pp. 323–339. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  15. ^"AC580 USB Wireless Adapter Roundup". SmallNetBuilder.com. 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  16. ^"Linksys WUMC710 Wireless-AC Universal Media Connector Reviewed". SmallNetBuilder.com. 2014-01-28. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  17. ^"Archer C59". TP-LINK.com. 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2017-03-19.
  18. ^Ganesh, T S (2014-09-02). "Netgear R7500 Nighthawk X4 Integrates Quantenna 4x4 ac Radio and Qualcomm IPQ8064 SoC". anandtech.com. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
  19. ^ abHiggins, Tim (2013-10-08). "AC1900: Innovation or 3D Wi-Fi?". smallnetbuilder.com. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
  20. ^Ngo, Dong. "Netgear R8500 Nighthawk X8 AC5300 Smart WiFi Router review". CNET.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  21. ^"Quantenna Launches World's First 802.11ac Gigabit-Wireless Solution for Retail Wi-Fi Routers and Consumer Electronics" (Press release). Quantenna. 2011-11-15.
  22. ^"Redpine Signals Releases First Ultra Low Power 802.11ac Technology for Smartphone Application Processors" (Press release). Redpine Signals. 2011-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  23. ^"Broadcom Launches First Gigabit Speed 802.11ac Chips - Opens 2012 CES with 5th Generation (5G) Wi-Fi Breakthrough" (Press release). Broadcom. 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  24. ^"Netgear's R6300 router is first to use Broadcom 802.11ac chipset, will ship next month for $200". Engadget. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  25. ^"Buffalo's 802.11ac Wireless Solutions Available Now" (Press release). Austin, Texas: Buffalo Technology (via PRNewswire). May 14, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  26. ^"Huawei Announces Commercial Availability of Industry's First Enterprise-level 802.11ac Access Point". Huawei. 6 December 2012.
  27. ^"Motorola Modular Access Points Performance Review". broadbandlanding.com. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  28. ^"HP Launches the HP 560 802.11ac Access Point". HP. 2014-03-31.
  29. ^"Asus gaming notebook first to feature full 802.11ac". Electronista. 2012-06-07. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  30. ^"Apple unveils new MacBook Air lineup with all-day battery life, 802.11ac Wi-Fi". AppleInsider. 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  31. ^"Apple - Macbook Air". Apple.com. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  32. ^"MacBook Pro with Retina display - Technical Specifications". Apple. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  33. ^"Mac Pro - Technical Specifications". Apple. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  34. ^"HP ENVY TouchSmart 17-j043cl Notebook PC Product Specifications HP ENVY TouchSmart 17-j043cl Notebook PC". HP Support. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  35. ^"HTC One Teardown". iFixit.com. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  36. ^"HTC One M8 | HTC United States | HTC United States". Htc.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  37. ^"Inside the Samsung Galaxy S4 - Recent Teardowns". 27 April 2013. Archived from the original on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  38. ^"Cellular, WiFi, Speaker & Noise Rejection - Samsung Galaxy Note 3 Review". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  39. ^"LG Nexus 5 - Full phone specifications". Gsmarena.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  40. ^"Nexus 5 Teardown". iFixit.com. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  41. ^"Nokia Lumia 1520 Specifications - Microsoft - USA". Microsoft.com. 2014-07-23. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  42. ^"Nokia Lumia Icon". Nokia. Retrieved 2014-11-10.
  43. ^"HTC One (M8) Teardown". iFixit.com. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  44. ^"Samsung Galaxy S5 Hits Stores, Chock Full of Broadcom Tech - Broadcom Connected". 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  45. ^"LG Electronics G2 Powered by ANADIGICS 802.11ac WiFi FEIC" (Press release). ANADIGICS. 2013-08-15. Archived from the original on 2014-03-04.
  46. ^"First Look: LG G3 Teardown – uBreakiFix Blog". Ubreakifix.com. 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  47. ^"Amazon Fire Phone - 13MP Camera, 32GB - Shop Now". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  48. ^"Amazon Fire Phone Teardown". iFixit.com. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  49. ^"Samsung Note 4 & Alpha Teardown". Techinsights.com. 2014-09-10. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  50. ^"Exclusive Video Teardown: Apple iPhone 6 | Electronics360". Electronics360.globalspec.com. 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  51. ^"Nexus 6 Teardown". iFixit.com. November 2014. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  52. ^"WiFi Performance, GNSS, Misc. - The Samsung Galaxy Note 4 Review". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  53. ^"Video Performance, WiFi Performance, and GNSS Performance - The Samsung Galaxy Note5 and Galaxy S6 edge+ Review". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 2016-08-08.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11ac-2013
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Comparison of Wireless-AC and Wireless-N technologies

Belkin International, Inc., including all affiliates and subsidiaries (“Belkin”, “us” or “we”) thanks you for choosing one of our Belkin, Linksys or Wemo products (the “Product”). This End-User License Agreement (this “Agreement”) is a legal document that contains the terms and conditions under which limited use of certain Software (as defined below) that operates with the Product is licensed to you.

PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE INSTALLING OR USING THIS PRODUCT.

BY CHECKING THE BOX OR CLICKING THE BUTTON TO CONFIRM YOUR ACCEPTANCE WHEN YOU FIRST INSTALL THE SOFTWARE, YOU ARE AGREEING TO ALL THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. ALSO, BY USING, COPYING OR INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE, YOU ARE AGREEING TO ALL THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO ALL OF THESE TERMS, DO NOT CHECK THE BOX OR CLICK THE BUTTON AND/OR DO NOT USE, COPY OR INSTALL THE SOFTWARE, AND UNINSTALL THE SOFTWARE FROM ALL DEVICES THAT YOU OWN OR CONTROL. IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT AND YOU PURCHASED A PRODUCT CONTAINING THE SOFTWARE FROM AN AUTHORIZED RETAILER, RESELLER OR APP STORE (AS DEFINED BELOW), YOU MAY BE ELIGIBLE TO RETURN THE PRODUCT FOR A REFUND, SUBJECT TO THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE APPLICABLE RETURN POLICY.

IF YOU ARE LOCATED IN THE UNITED STATES, THIS AGREEMENT CONTAINS A DISPUTE RESOLUTION AND BINDING ARBITRATION PROVISION IN SECTION 17, INCLUDING A CLASS ACTION WAIVER THAT AFFECTS YOUR RIGHTS WITH RESPECT TO DISPUTES YOU MAY HAVE WITH BELKIN. YOU MAY OPT OUT OF SUCH ARBITRATION AND CLASS ACTION WAIVER AS PROVIDED IN SECTION 17.

This Software is licensed to you by Belkin and, where applicable, by Belkin’s suppliers. “Software” means any and all firmware programs and associated files provided with respect to the Product; any and all software programs, applications or “apps” and associated files provided with respect to the Product; all modified versions of and upgrades or improvements to such programs (such as those provided via web-based updates), all subsequent versions of such programs, and all copies of such programs and files. Software does not include any Open Source Software (as defined below).

By “you,” we mean the purchaser, recipient or other end user of the Product containing the Software or the purchaser, recipient or other end user of the Software on a standalone basis. “You” may also mean a person who has downloaded the Software from an authorized website, such as http://www.belkin.com or from an authorized application market or store, such as Apple’s App Store or Google Play (each such application market or store is referred to in this Agreement as an “App Store” and collectively as “App Stores”).

1.  LICENSE GRANT. Belkin hereby grants you the right to use: (i) where your Product is not a “Small-Medium Business or SMB” branded Product, for your personal, non-commercial purposes; or (ii) where your Product is a “Small Medium Business or SMB Product, for your personal or commercial use; copies of the Software in object code form on devices that you own (or, in the case of firmware, one copy of the firmware in object code form solely on the Product relating to the firmware). As part of this license, you may (A) operate the Software in the manner described in the user documentation for the Software; (B) where the Software is provided for download onto a personal computer or mobile device, make as many copies of the Software as you reasonably need for your own use (this does not include firmware); and (C) permanently transfer all of your rights to use the Product (including but not limited to the Software) to another person, so long as that person also agrees to be bound by this Agreement, and following such transfer you stop using the Product and the Software.

You can find the user documentation for the Software on the “Support” page of the applicable Belkin website.

2.  LICENSE RESTRICTIONS. The Software is made available to you on the basis of a limited license only as set out in this Agreement. You have the non-exclusive right to use the Software in accordance with this Agreement. All rights not expressly granted to you by Belkin under this Agreement are hereby reserved by Belkin. You will not acquire such rights, whether through estoppel, implication, or otherwise.

3.  APP SOFTWARE RESTRICTIONS. If you have downloaded the Software from an App Store, you are also subject to any terms of use of that App Store. Such terms of use may prohibit you from doing some of the things you are permitted to do under this Agreement or permit you to do some of the things you are prohibited from doing under this Agreement. In addition, application of the App Store’s terms of use may result in other terms of this Agreement not being applicable to the Software or applying in a different way than this Agreement states. If your use of the Software is subject to an App Store’s terms of use, then in the event of any conflict or ambiguity between the terms of this Agreement and such App Store’s terms of use, the App Store’s terms of use will govern, but only to the extent necessary to resolve such conflict or ambiguity, and the terms of this Agreement will otherwise remain in full force and effect. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Agreement, by using the Software, you acknowledge and agree that it is solely your responsibility to understand the terms of this Agreement, as well as the terms of use of any App Store that may be relevant to the Software or the Product. If this Agreement relates to an App downloaded from Apple’s App Store, the terms in the attached Apple Rider will also apply to you.

4.  UPGRADES AND UPDATES. While Belkin is not required to do so, Belkin may provide you with upgrades or updates to this Software. This Agreement will govern any upgrades provided by Belkin that replace and/or supplement the original firmware and/or Software, unless such upgrade is accompanied by a separate end user license agreement, in which case the terms of that end user license agreement will govern. If you decide not to download and/or to use an upgrade or update provided by Belkin, you understand that you could put the Software at risk to serious security threats or cause the Software to become unusable or unstable. Some Products include an auto-update feature, which gives us the ability to make updates automatically. You can change auto-update options by changing your settings within the Product account information. In very limited cases, updates may still be automatically applied, regardless of the auto-update setting. For example, we may provide an automatic update that fixes a security breach or vulnerability to your network. We may also provide you with updated Software data files automatically to benefit you, such as to provide you with updated device information to identify new devices in your network. These data files do not update your firmware but consist of Software files that are cached on your Product and override older files. By agreeing to this Agreement, you agree to automatic updates.

5.  DATA AND PRIVACY. Belkin is committed to protecting your privacy. Our goal is to provide you with a positive experience when using our apps, products and services, while at the same time keeping your Personal Information, as defined in the Belkin Privacy Policy (the “Privacy Policy”), secure. Our privacy practices are described in the Privacy Policy, as well as in separate notices given when an app, product or service is purchased or downloaded. At all times your information will be treated in accordance with the Belkin Privacy Policy, which is incorporated by reference into this Agreement and can be viewed here.

6.  OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE. You hereby acknowledge that the Software may contain Open Source Software. This license does not apply to Open Source Software contained in the Software. Rather, the terms and conditions in the applicable Open Source Software license shall apply to the Open Source Software. Nothing in this Agreement limits your rights under, or grants you rights that supersede, any Open Source Software license. You acknowledge that the Open Source Software license is solely between you and the applicable licensor of the Open Source Software. You shall comply with the terms of all applicable Open Source Software licenses, if any. License and copyright information for the Open Source Software are disclosed in the Product documentation, within the “Support” tab on Belkin websites and within the “Contact Us” section on Linksys websites. Belkin is not obligated to provide any maintenance or support for the Open Source Software or any Product Software that has been modified by you pursuant to an Open Source Software license.

“Open Source Software” means any software or software component or technology that is subject to an open source license. Open source licenses are generally licenses that make source code available for free modification and distribution, but can also apply to technology received and distributed solely in object code form. Examples of open source licenses include: (a) GNU's General Public License (GPL) or Lesser/Library GPL (LGPL); (b) the OpenSSL License; (c) the Mozilla Public License; (d) the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) License; and (e) the Apache License.

7.  INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. All title and intellectual property rights (including without limitation all copyrights, patents, trade secret rights and trademark rights) in and to the Software (including but not limited to any content incorporated into the Software), the accompanying printed materials, and any copies of the Software, are owned by Belkin or its suppliers. Therefore, you must treat the Software like any other material protected by laws and treaties relating to international property rights and in accordance with this Agreement.

8.  THIRD PARTY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. The Software may contain links or other features that make it easier for you to visit or log-in to independent third-party websites (“Linked Sites”). These features are provided solely as a convenience to you. Linked Sites are not under Belkin’s control, and Belkin is not responsible or liable for and does not endorse the content or practices of such Linked Sites, including any information or materials contained on such Linked Sites. You will need to make your own independent judgment regarding your interaction with any Linked Sites. You hereby waive and release any legal claim you might have against Belkin with respect to these sites or third-party products or services, and your use of these sites, third-party products or services. We encourage you to read the terms and conditions and privacy policy of each third party website that you choose to visit.

9.  INDEMNITY. If Belkin is the subject of a claim, becomes involved in a legal proceeding, or suffers any economic loss or damage as a result of your violation of this Agreement, to the extent permitted by law, you will be responsible for compensating Belkin for the full amount of its loss, as well as any reasonable amounts Belkin incurs in lawyers' fees, expenses and court costs, except to the extent that Belkin contributed to the loss or damage.

10.  TERM. This Agreement is effective when you click on the “I Accept” button, or when you in any other way use, copy or install the Software, which will constitute your acceptance of, and agreement to, this Agreement. Once accepted, this Agreement remains in effect until terminated. The limited license in this Agreement will automatically terminate if you fail to comply with any of the terms and conditions in this Agreement. You agree that upon such termination, you will immediately destroy all programs and documentation that relate to the Software, including all copies made or obtained by you, and otherwise cease use of the Software. If the Software has been installed on a personal computer or mobile device, you must uninstall the Software immediately. If the Software is software or firmware embedded in a Product, you must stop using the Product. All provisions of this Agreement except for Section 1 and the limited warranty in Section 12 (the first paragraph) will survive termination.

11.  IMPORTANT NOTICE REGARDING YOUR CONSUMER RIGHTS.

NON-EU RESIDENTS. SOME COUNTRIES, STATES AND/OR PROVINCES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF CERTAIN CONDITIONS, WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES, AND/OR DO NOT ALLOW PRODUCTS OR SERVICES TO BE SOLD WITH NO WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES. ACCORDINGLY, IF THESE LAWS APPLY TO YOU, SOME OR ALL OF THE SECTIONS BELOW ENTITLED “LIMITED WARRANTY AND DISCLAIMER” AND “GENERAL EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY” MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. ONLY THOSE EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS THAT ARE LAWFUL IN YOUR JURISDICTION WILL APPLY TO YOU AND, IN SUCH INSTANCES, BELKIN’S LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED ONLY TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. THE ENFORCEABILITY OF THESE LIMITED WARRANTIES MAY VARY BASED ON THE LOCAL LAWS APPLICABLE TO YOU, AND YOU MAY HAVE ADDITIONAL RIGHTS DEPENDING ON WHERE YOU LIVE.

If you are located in Australia or New Zealand, the following four paragraphs apply to you:

The benefits we give in this Agreement are additional to any rights and remedies that you may have under the Australian Competition and Consumer Act 2010 or the New Zealand Consumer Guarantees Act 1993 (“CGA”) (as applicable) and other applicable Australia and New Zealand consumer protection laws.

In Australia, our Software and the media on which it is provided, as well as any related services, come with guarantees that cannot be excluded under the Australian Consumer Law. For major failures with the service, you are entitled:

  • to cancel your service contract with us; and
  • to a refund for the unused portion, or to compensation for its reduced value.

You are also entitled to be compensated for any other reasonably foreseeable loss or damage. If the failure does not amount to a major failure, you are entitled to have problems with the Service rectified in a reasonable time and, if this is not done, to cancel your contract and obtain a refund for the unused portion of the contract.

In New Zealand, our Software and the media on which it is provided come with guarantees that cannot be excluded under the Consumer Guarantees Act 1933 (NZ CGA).

This Agreement is not intended to and does not: (i) change or exclude any statutory consumer rights that cannot be lawfully changed or excluded; or (ii) limit or exclude any right you have against the person who sold the Product to you if that person has breached any sales contract with you. You agree to use the Software in compliance with all applicable laws, including local laws of the country or region in which you live or in which you download or use the Software.

EU RESIDENTS. Nothing in this Agreement is intended to or will have the effect of limiting any of your rights under European Union law and/or the laws of your country of residence, including rights as to the quality and fitness for purpose of the Software and its compliance with the description of it which was made by us prior to you accepting this Agreement.

References in this Agreement to “special, indirect, consequential, punitive or incidental damages” shall mean any losses which (i) were not reasonably foreseeable by both parties; (ii) were known to you but not to us; and/or (iii) were reasonably foreseeable by both parties but could have been prevented by you such as, for example (but without limitation), losses caused by viruses, malware or other malicious programs, or loss of or damage to your data.

You agree to use the Software in compliance with all applicable laws, including local laws of the country or region in which you live or in which you download or use the Software.

12.  LIMITED WARRANTY AND WARRANTY DISCLAIMER. Belkin warrants that any media (such as a CD or USB stick) on which the Software may be provided will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for 90 days from the date of its original purchase (the “Warranty Period”). If you make an eligible software media claim under this warranty during the Warranty Period (the “Limited Warranty”), Belkin will honor this warranty by replacing the Software media. To make a claim under this Limited Warranty, return the defective media along with the sales receipt directly to Belkin at the address indicated below, or you can contact the Belkin Support Team in your area as indicated below. This Limited Warranty is void if failure of the media has resulted from accident, abuse, or misapplication. Any replacement media will be warranted for the remainder of the original Warranty Period or thirty (30) days, whichever is longer. In relation to consumers who are entitled to the benefit of the CGA, the media on which Software is provided comes with guarantees that cannot be excluded under New Zealand law, and this Limited Warranty is in addition to any statutory rights such consumers may have under New Zealand law. This Limited Warranty does not apply in Australia. Consumers in Australia have statutory rights in relation to the Software and media on which the Software is provided under the Australian Consumer Law.

EXCEPT FOR THIS LIMITED WARRANTY ON MEDIA, SUBJECT TO SECTION 11 AND TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, THE SOFTWARE AND ANY RELATED PROGRAMS AND DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED TO YOU “AS IS,” WITH ALL FAULTS AND WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND. NO ORAL OR WRITTEN INFORMATION OR ADVICE GIVEN BY BELKIN OR A DEALER, AGENT OR AFFILIATE SHALL CREATE A WARRANTY. To the extent warranties cannot be disclaimed or excluded, they are limited to the duration of the Warranty Period indicated above.

13.  DISCLAIMERS, GENERAL EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY:

IN SOME JURISDICTIONS AND CIRCUMSTANCES, IT IS POSSIBLE TO EXCLUDE AND/OR TO LIMIT BELKIN’S LIABILITY TO CONSUMERS. ONLY IN THOSE JURISDICTIONS WHERE IT CAN LAWFULLY DO SO, AND TO THE FULL EXTENT THAT IT IS ALLOWED BY LOCAL CONSUMER LAWS IN YOUR COUNTRY (INCLUDING THE LAWS REFERRED TO IN SECTION 11 ABOVE IF YOU ARE A CUSTOMER IN AUSTRALIA OR NEW ZEALAND), BELKIN:

  • EXCLUDES ALL LIABILITY FOR THE LOSS OF, OR DAMAGE TO, DATA CAUSED BY USE OF THE SOFTWARE;
  • EXCLUDES ANY LIABILITY IT MAY HAVE TO YOU FOR:
    • LOSS OF REVENUE OR PROFIT,
    • LOSS OF THE ABILITY TO USE ANY THIRD-PARTY PRODUCTS, SOFTWARE OR SERVICES, AND
    • ANY INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, INCIDENTAL OR PUNITIVE LOSS OR DAMAGES (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF USE, DATA, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION OR COST OF PROCURING SUBSTITUTE SERVICES), WHICH ARISES UNDER ANY LAW (INCLUDING THE LAW OF NEGLIGENCE) AND WHICH RELATES TO YOUR USE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE, THE SOFTWARE OR ANY RELATED SERVICES. THIS EXCLUSION APPLIES EVEN IF BELKIN HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND EVEN IF ANY WARRANTY OR REMEDY PROVIDED UNDER THE ABOVE WARRANTY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE; AND
  • LIMITS ITS MONETARY LIABILITY TO YOU, UNDER ANY LAW, TO FIFTY DOLLARS ($50.00).

THIS LIMITATION IS CUMULATIVE AND WILL NOT BE INCREASED BY THE EXISTENCE OF MORE THAN ONE INCIDENT OR CLAIM. NOTHING IN THIS SECTION SHALL LIMIT BELKIN’S LIABILITY IN RELATION TO DEATH OR BODILY INJURIES RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OR RECKLESSNESS OF BELKIN AND/OR ITS ASSOCIATED PARTIES.

YOUR USE OF THE SOFTWARE, PRODUCT AND RELATED PROGRAMS AND DOCUMENTATION IS AT YOUR OWN RISK AND DISCRETION. YOU ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR (AND BELKIN DISCLAIMS) ANY AND ALL LOSS, LIABILITY, OR DAMAGES, INCLUDING TO YOUR HOME, HVAC SYSTEM, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, PLUMBING, PRODUCT, OTHER PERIPHERALS CONNECTED TO THE PRODUCT, COMPUTER, MOBILE DEVICE, AND ALL OTHER ITEMS AND PETS IN YOUR HOME, RESULTING FROM YOUR MISUSE OF THE SOFTWARE, PRODUCT AND RELATED PROGRAMS AND DOCUMENTATION. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR COMPLYING WITH ANY SAFETY WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS THAT ACCOMPANY THE PRODUCT. IF YOU ARE NOT COMFORTABLE WITH USING THE PRODUCT AFTER READING THE SAFETY WARNINGS, YOU MUST RETURN THE PRODUCT TO YOUR PLACE OF PURCHASE AND STOP USING THE SOFTWARE. BELKIN IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR (I) YOUR FAILURE TO FOLLOW SAFETY WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS OR ANY OTHER INSTRUCTIONS PROVIDED WITH THE PRODUCT AND/OR SOFTWARE, (II) YOUR NEGLIGENCE IN USE OF THE PRODUCT AND/OR SOFTWARE, OR (III) YOUR INTENTIONAL MISUSE OF THE PRODUCT OR SOFTWARE.

YOU FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE SOFTWARE AND ANY RELATED PROGRAMS AND DOCUMENTATION ARE NOT CERTIFIED FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE OR INTENDED OR SUITABLE FOR USE IN SITUATIONS OR ENVIRONMENTS WHERE FAILURE, DELAY OR ERRORS OR INACCURACIES IN THE DATA OR INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE SOFTWARE COULD LEAD TO DEATH, PERSONAL INJURY OR SEVERE PHYSICAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION IN CONNECTION WITH THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES, AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION OR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, LIFE SUPPORT OR WEAPONS SYSTEMS. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT THE PRODUCT AND SOFTWARE ARE NOT PART OF AND DO NOT CONTAIN A THIRD-PARTY MONITORED EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEM. BELKIN DOES NOT MONITOR EMERGENCY NOTIFICATIONS AND WILL NOT DISPATCH EMERGENCY AUTHORITIES TO YOUR HOME IN THE EVENT OF AN EMERGENCY. BELKIN CUSTOMER SUPPORT CONTACTS CANNOT BE CONSIDERED A LIFESAVING SOLUTION AND THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR EMERGENCY SERVICES. ALL LIFE THREATENING AND EMERGENCY SITUATIONS SHOULD BE DIRECTED TO THE APPROPRIATE EMERGENCY RESPONSE SERVICES IN YOUR AREA.

It is your responsibility to back up your system, including without limitation, any material, information or data that you may use or possess in connection with the Product or Software, and Belkin shall have no liability for your failure to back up your system or any material, information or data.

Some Belkin Products and Software may monitor energy consumption in the home. Belkin does not guarantee or promise any specific level of energy savings or other monetary benefit from the use of the Products or Software or any other feature. Actual energy savings and any associated monetary benefits vary based on factors beyond Belkin’s control or knowledge. From time to time, Belkin may use the Software to provide you with information that is unique to you and your energy usage and suggests an opportunity to save money on energy bills if you adopt suggestions or features of the Product or Software. You acknowledge that this information is not a guarantee of actual savings, and you agree not to seek monetary or other remedies from Belkin if your savings differs. All information provided to you by Belkin is provided “as is” and “as available”. We cannot guarantee that it is correct or up to date. In cases where it is critical, accessing information through the Software is not a substitute for direct access of the information in the home.

The warranties and remedies set out in this Agreement are exclusive, and, to the extent permitted by law, in lieu of all others oral or written, express or implied.

14.  EXPORT CONTROL LAWS: You agree that the use of the Software is subject to U.S. and local export control laws and regulations. You represent and warrant that you are not located in or a citizen of an embargoed or “terrorist supporting” country or a prohibited or restricted end user under applicable U.S. or local export and anti-terrorism laws, regulations and lists. You agree to strictly comply with all export control laws and regulations and agree not to export, re-export, divert, transfer or disclose any portion of the Software or any related technical information or materials, directly or indirectly, in violation of any applicable export law or regulation.

15.  U.S. GOVERNMENT USERS: The Software and user documentation qualify as “commercial items” as defined at 48 C.F.R. 2.101 and 48 C.F.R. 12.212. All U.S. Government users acquire the Software and user documentation with only those rights herein that apply to non-governmental customers. Use of either the Software or user documentation or both constitutes agreement by the U.S. Government that the Software and user documentation are “commercial computer software” and “commercial computer software documentation,” and constitutes acceptance of the rights and restrictions herein.

16.  GENERAL TERMS. If any portion of this Agreement or any of its terms is found to be void or unenforceable by law in a particular jurisdiction, such portion or terms shall be interpreted and enforced to the maximum extent allowed in such jurisdiction, and the remaining provisions or any part thereof will remain in full force and effect. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between Belkin and you with respect to the Software and your use thereof and supersedes any conflicting or additional terms contained in any purchase order or elsewhere. No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified or superseded except by a written instrument signed and accepted by Belkin and you. However, the Belkin Privacy Policy referenced herein is subject to change in the manner described in that document. Belkin may provide translations of this Agreement as a convenience to users. However, in the event of a conflict or inconsistency between the English and any non-English versions, the English version of this Agreement shall govern, to the extent not prohibited by local law in your jurisdiction. Any suppliers of Belkin shall be direct and intended third-party beneficiaries of this Agreement, including without limitation with respect to the disclaimers of warranties and limitations on liability set forth herein. Other than as set forth in the preceding sentence, a person or entity who is not a party to this Agreement shall not have any right to enforce any term of this Agreement. No failure or delay in exercising any right or remedy shall operate as a waiver of any such (or any other) right or remedy. The language of this Agreement shall not be construed strictly for or against either party, regardless of who drafted such language or was principally responsible for drafting it. The rights and obligations under this Agreement are not assignable by you, and any attempted assignment shall be void and without effect. This Agreement shall bind and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns. In the event of any legal proceeding between the parties arising out of or related to this Agreement, the prevailing party shall be entitled to recover, in addition to any other relief awarded or granted, its costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ and expert witness’ fees) incurred in any such proceeding.

If you are located in the United States, Section 17 applies to you:

17.  ARBITRATION, WAIVER OF CLASSWIDE ARBITRATION, GOVERNING LAW & VENUE.

MANDATORY ARBITRATION. You have the right to opt-out of this mandatory arbitration provision. If you opt-out, you will retain your right to file a lawsuit. To opt-out, you must follow the directions set forth below under the heading “How to Opt Out of Mandatory Arbitration”. If you do not opt-out, you will have agreed to the mandatory arbitration set forth below.

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY. THE FOLLOWING PROVISIONS AFFECT YOUR RIGHTS.

YOU AND BELKIN EACH ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT ANY CLAIM, DISPUTE OR CONTROVERSY BETWEEN YOU AND BELKIN ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO (1) THIS AGREEMENT, INCLUDING THE VALIDITY OF THIS SECTION, AND (2) YOUR USE OF SOFTWARE AND/OR PRODUCT(S) UNDER THIS AGREEMENT (COLLECTIVELY, THE “DISPUTE”) SHALL BE RESOLVED EXCLUSIVELY AND FINALLY BY BINDING ARBITRATION ADMINISTERED BY A MUTUALLY AGREEABLE NATIONALLY RECOGNIZED ARBITRATION AUTHORITY PURSUANT TO ITS CODE OF PROCEDURES THEN IN EFFECT FOR CONSUMER-RELATED DISPUTES. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT WITHOUT THIS PROVISION YOU WOULD HAVE HAD A RIGHT TO LITIGATE A DISPUTE THROUGH A COURT BEFORE A JURY OR JUDGE, AND THAT YOU HAVE EXPRESSLY AND KNOWINGLY WAIVED THOSE RIGHTS AND AGREE INSTEAD TO RESOLVE ANY DISPUTES THROUGH BINDING ARBITRATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THIS SECTION.

ARBITRATION PROCEDURES AND FEES. THE ARBITRATION SHALL OCCUR BEFORE A SINGLE ARBITRATOR, WHO MUST BE A RETIRED JUDGE OR JUSTICE, IN ONE OF SIX REGIONAL VENUES CONSISTENT WITH THE VENUE PROVISION BELOW. WHETHER OR NOT YOU PREVAIL IN THE DISPUTE SO LONG AS YOUR CLAIM IS NOT FOUND TO BE FRIVOLOUS BY THE ARBITRATOR AS MEASURED BY RULE 11(b) OF THE FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, YOU SHALL BE ENTITLED TO BE REIMBURSED FOR YOUR COSTS OF ARBITRATION, WITHIN THE SOLE DISCRETION OF THE ARBITRATOR. IF THE ARBITRATION AWARD IS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN THE AMOUNT YOU DEMANDED IN YOUR ARBITRATION CLAIM, BELKIN WILL PAY FOR YOUR REASONABLE AND ACTUAL ATTORNEYS’ FEES YOU HAVE INCURRED TO ARBITRATE THE DISPUTE, PLUS A MINIMUM RECOVERY OF $2,500. ANY DECISION OR AWARD BY THE ARBITRATOR RENDERED IN AN ARBITRATION PROCEEDING SHALL BE FINAL AND BINDING ON EACH PARTY, AND MAY BE ENTERED AS A JUDGMENT IN ANY COURT OF COMPETENT JURISDICTION. IF EITHER PARTY BRINGS A DISPUTE IN A COURT OR OTHER NON-ARBITRATION FORUM, THE ARBITRATOR OR JUDGE MAY AWARD THE OTHER PARTY ITS REASONABLE COSTS AND EXPENSES (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ATTORNEYS’ FEES) INCURRED IN ENFORCING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS BINDING ARBITRATION PROVISION, INCLUDING STAYING OR DISMISSING SUCH DISPUTE.

WAIVER OF CLASSWIDE CLAIMS; SMALL CLAIMS COURT. NEITHER YOU NOR BELKIN SHALL BE ENTITLED TO JOIN OR CONSOLIDATE CLAIMS IN ARBITRATION BY OR AGAINST OTHER CONSUMERS OR ARBITRATE ANY CLAIMS AS A REPRESENTATIVE OR MEMBER OF A CLASS OR IN A PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL CAPACITY. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT WITHOUT THIS PROVISION YOU MAY HAVE HAD A RIGHT TO ARBITRATE A DISPUTE ON A CLASSWIDE OR REPRESENTATIVE BASIS, AND THAT YOU HAVE EXPRESSLY AND KNOWINGLY WAIVED THOSE RIGHTS AND AGREE INSTEAD TO ARBITRATE ONLY YOUR OWN DISPUTE(S) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THIS SECTION.

NOTWITHSTANDING THE ABOVE AGREEMENT TO ARBITRATE DISPUTES, YOU AND BELKIN EACH ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT EITHER PARTY MAY, AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ARBITRATION, BRING AN INDIVIDUAL ACTION IN SMALL CLAIMS COURT TO RESOLVE A DISPUTE, SO LONG AS SUCH SMALL CLAIMS COURT DOES NOT PROVIDE FOR OR ALLOW FOR JOINDER OR CONSOLIDATION OF CLAIMS.

GOVERNING LAW. THIS AGREEMENT IS TO BE CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH AND GOVERNED BY THE INTERNAL LAWS OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA WITHOUT GIVING EFFECT TO ANY CHOICE OF LAW RULE THAT WOULD CAUSE THE APPLICATION OF THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION (OTHER THAN THE INTERNAL LAWS OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA) TO THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE PARTIES. HOWEVER, WITH RESPECT TO SOFTWARE PROVIDED, IF YOU ARE A CONSUMER AND YOU LIVE IN A COUNTRY WHERE BELKIN MARKETS OR PROMOTES THE SOFTWARE, LOCAL LAW MAY REQUIRE THAT CERTAIN CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS OF YOUR COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE APPLY TO SOME SECTIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT. EACH OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON CONTRACTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS AND THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LIMITATION PERIOD IN THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS IS HEREBY EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED AND WILL NOT APPLY TO THIS AGREEMENT.

VENUE. EXCEPT FOR INDIVIDUAL SMALL CLAIMS ACTIONS WHICH CAN BE BROUGHT IN ANY SMALL CLAIMS COURT WHERE JURISDICTION AND VENUE ARE PROPER, ANY ARBITRATION, LEGAL SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR ANY DISPUTE SHALL BE COMMENCED IN (1) NEW YORK, NEW YORK, (2) ATLANTA, GEORGIA, (3) CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, (4) DALLAS, TEXAS, (5) SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, OR (6) LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, AND YOU AND BELKIN EACH IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION AND VENUE FOR ANY SUCH PROCEEDING. HOWEVER, FOR A DISPUTE OF $2,500 OR LESS, YOU MAY CHOOSE WHETHER THE ARBITRATION IN ANY OF THE SIX REGIONAL VENUES PROCEEDS IN PERSON, BY TELEPHONE, OR BASED ONLY ON SUBMISSIONS.

HOW TO OPT OUT OF MANDATORY ARBITRATION. Notwithstanding the foregoing, you or Belkin may file a lawsuit in court rather than resolving the Dispute by arbitration if (a) the Dispute qualifies for small claims court (there are monetary limitations for small claims court), or (b) you opt out of these arbitration procedures within 30 days from the date that you accept this Agreement (the “Opt-Out Deadline”). In order to opt out of mandatory arbitration, you must (i) mail written notification to Belkin International, Inc., 12045 E. Waterfront Drive, Playa Vista, California, 90094, Attn: Chief Legal Officer, or (ii) email written notification to [email protected] In either case, such written notification must include your name, address, and a clear statement that you do not wish to resolve disputes with Belkin through arbitration. Any opt-out request received after the Opt-Out Deadline will not be valid and you must pursue your Dispute in arbitration or, if the dispute qualifies, in small claims court.

If you are located outside of the United States, or if Section 17 does not apply to you or is otherwise unenforceable as adjudicated by a court of competent jurisdiction, then Section 18 applies to you:

18.  GOVERNING LAW.

NON-EU RESIDENTS. The courts in some countries or jurisdictions will not apply California law to some types of disputes. If you are resident in one of those countries or jurisdictions, then where California law is excluded from applying, your country’s laws will apply to such disputes which are related to this Agreement. In all other circumstances, this Agreement will be governed by California law, without reference to its or any other jurisdiction’s conflict of laws principles. The courts in some countries or jurisdictions will not allow for dispute resolution by arbitration or waiver of classwide claims by you. If you are a resident of one of those countries or jurisdictions, any action arising out of or relating to this Agreement may be brought exclusively in the appropriate state or federal court in Los Angeles, California, and Belkin and you irrevocably consent to the jurisdiction of such courts and venue in Los Angeles, California. However, if you are a consumer and you live in a country where Belkin markets or distributes the Software, local law may require that certain consumer protection laws of your country of residence apply to some sections of this Agreement. In addition, Belkin may seek injunctive relief in any court having jurisdiction to protect its intellectual property rights. Each of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and the United Nations Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods is hereby expressly excluded and will not apply to this Agreement.

EU RESIDENTS. If you are a natural person who resides in a country in the European Union, the laws of the member state in which you are a resident shall apply to this Agreement and any disputes potentially arising in connection thereto. The courts of the member state in which you reside shall have non-exclusive jurisdiction over any such dispute. Residents of countries in the European Union may also bring any such dispute before a local consumer dispute resolution body, if any such body is constituted under the laws of the country in which you reside. Otherwise if you are located in Europe and are not a natural person, the laws of the United Kingdom shall apply to all matters arising from or relating to this Agreement (without reference to its choice of law provisions) and all disputes related thereto are dealt exclusively by the competent courts of the United Kingdom.

APPLE RIDER
(REQUIRED FOR APP SOFTWARE ON APPLE’S APP STORE ONLY)

Acknowledgement. Both Belkin and you acknowledge that (i) this Agreement is concluded between Belkin and you only, and not with Apple, Inc. (“Apple”); (ii) as between Belkin and Apple, Belkin, not Apple, is solely responsible for the licensed application (“App”) and the content thereof. This Agreement does not provide for usage rules for the App that conflicts with the App Store Terms of Service as of the date you entered into this Agreement, and you acknowledge that you have had the opportunity to review the App Store Terms of Service.

Scope of License: The license granted to you for the App is limited to a non-transferable license to use the App on any Apple-branded products that you own or control and as permitted by the Usage Rules set forth in the App Store Terms of Service, except that such App may be accessed, acquired and used by other accounts associated with you via family sharing or volume purchasing.

Maintenance and Support. Belkin is solely responsible for providing any maintenance and support services with respect to the App as required under applicable law. Both Belkin and you acknowledge that Apple has no obligation whatsoever to furnish any maintenance and support services with respect to the App.

Warranty: Belkin is solely responsible for the warranty in this Agreement, whether express or implied by law, to the extent not effectively disclaimed. In the event of any failure of the App to conform to any applicable warranty, you may notify Apple, and Apple will refund the purchase price for the App to you. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Apple will have no other warranty obligation whatsoever with respect to the App, and any other claims, losses, liabilities, damages, costs or expenses attributable to any failure to conform to any warranty will be Belkin’s sole responsibility.

Product Claims. Belkin and you acknowledge that Belkin, and not Apple, is responsible for addressing any claims relating to the App and your possession and/or use of the App, including but not limited to: (i) product liability claims; (ii) any claim that the App fails to conform to any applicable legal or regulatory requirement; and (iii) claims arising under consumer protection or similar legislation. This Agreement does not limit Belkin’s liability beyond what is permitted by applicable law.

Intellectual Property Rights. Belkin and you acknowledge that in the event of any third party claim that the App or your possession and use of the App infringes that third party’s intellectual property rights, Belkin and not Apple will be solely responsible for the investigation, defense, settlement and discharge of any such intellectual property infringement claim.

Third Party Terms of Agreement. You must comply with any applicable third-party terms of agreement when using the App, such as your wireless data service agreement.

Third Party Beneficiary. Belkin and you acknowledge and agree that Apple and its subsidiaries are third party beneficiaries of this Agreement and that, upon your acceptance of the terms and conditions of this Agreement, Apple will have the right (and will be deemed to have accepted the right) to enforce this Agreement against you as a third party beneficiary.

********************************

Belkin International, Inc.
12045 East Waterfront Drive
Playa Vista, California 90094

If you have a question about your Product or Software or experience a problem with it, please go to the following websites for information on how to contact Belkin in your area:

Belkin, Linksys, Wemo and many product names and logos are trademarks of the Belkin group of companies. Third-party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.

© 2019 Belkin International, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Dated June 2019


Sours: https://www.linksys.com/us/support-article?articleNum=135534
Setting up a Wireless AC Network

Wi-Fi Predecessors

Wi-Fi was born in 1985 after the United States FCC opened up the wireless frequencies 900Mhz, 2.4Ghz, and 5.8Ghz to be used without a license. These radio bands were used by household appliances such as microwaves, and were assumed to have no practical application in communications due to interference from the aforementioned appliances. To make these frequencies usable for communication, the FCC mandated usage of spread spectrum technology over these bands.

 

Wireless Local Area Network Technology

Around the same time as WiFi, WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology emerged, but the technology was proprietary, so wireless devices from one manufacturer wouldn’t work with technology from another. However, in 1988, the NCR Corporation wanted a WLAN standard for use in their wireless cash registers and turned to Victor Hayes, author of many of their data transfer standards. Hayes, along with Bruce Tuch, a Bell Labs engineer, asked the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for assistance in utilizing these frequencies for a WLAN standard. A committee was created - with the incredibly catchy title “802.11” - to develop this standard. Nine years later, in 1997, the standard was published and named after the committee.

 

The Beginnings of Wi-Fi

The 802.11 standard was capable of transmitting data at a speed of only two megabits per second but was quickly enhanced. In 1999, a faster version called 802.11a was released, offering a speed of fifty-four megabits per second but with limited range and high production cost. Later in that same year, 802.11b was released, which brought Wi-Fi into the mainstream with its cheap production cost and greater range.

The sudden popularity of wireless networking created a flood of new 802.11b hardware on the market, but there was no way to ensure compatibility between devices from different manufacturers. In 1999, a group of six companies banded together to create the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance, or WECA, an organization that aimed to test Wi-Fi equipment for compatibility. In 2002, they coined the term "Wi-Fi", combining "Wireless" and "Hi-Fi" (a term used in the music industry as an abbreviation of High Fidelity), and renamed themselves Wi-Fi Alliance.

 

And Then There was Wireless-N…

Wireless-N (802.11n) was released in 2009, and was the first to operate on two bands (2.4 Ghz and 5 Ghz), which explains the term dual band router. What made Wireless-N significant is that it increased the maximum data transmission rate more than tenfold from 54 Mbps to 900 Mbps.

Wireless-N also opened up additional spectrum area for wireless transmission, allowing for the use of four spatial streams in a channel width of 40 MHz. That is double the channel width of Wireless-G. 802.11n standardized support/technical specifications for multiple-input multiple-output (AKA MIMO). It also increased security and improved several additional features.

 

Sours: https://www.flashrouters.com/router-basics/wireless-ac

Ac wireless

Wireless AC Explained

Download our
Wi-Fi AC vs. Wireless N
comparison

  • Do you have issues getting a full Wi-Fi signal?
  • Are you always being told to wait while your computer connects?
  • Do you have areas in your home where there is no Wi-Fi signal at all?

Most people will have the same router that came with their broadband package, which may be based on old or cheaper technology. As a result you may experience slow speeds and poor internet signal.

 

Wi-Fi congestion

Congestion

The average household has an average of 7 Wi-Fi enabled devices. Too many devices trying to connect to the same wireless network at the same time can cause congestion. You can see this when you have continual buffering while you are trying to watch videos on your smart TV, smartphone/tablet or computer, especially when other devices are surfing the web or playing online games at the same time.

All D-Link Wireless AC routers support dual-band or even triple-band wireless, operating on both the 2.4 GHz and the 5GHz wireless bands. This allows you to browse the web, chat and e-mail using the 2.4 GHz band on your smartphone and computer while simultaneously streaming HD videos or gaming online on the 5 GHz band.

 

Wi-Fi interference

Interference

Many household appliances can cause wireless interference, even if they are not Wi-Fi enabled. The list includes cordless phones, baby monitors, and microwave ovens.

You may experience poor network performance caused by this non-wifi interference and in some cases your wireless network may even cut out when the microwave or cordless phone is in use.

To help reduce interference with Wi-Fi, try to position your router away from these appliances and switch to the 5Ghz band.

 

The solution to W-Fi problems

The solution - Wireless AC. Greater coverage and speed

The simplest solution to solving poor Wi-Fi performance is to switch to Wireless AC. The 802.11ac wireless standard broadcasts on the entire 5 GHz spectrum, where there is less congestion, noise, and interference from competing technologies.

Moreover, there is a lot more space available in this band, allowing for up to 19 channels compared to just three with 802.11n. Plus, AC Wi-Fi channels are wider and carry a lot more data, giving you a seamless network speed at up to 5334 Mbps*.

Discover our Wireless AC routers

 

Dual-band and triple-band Wi-Fi AC routers

Dual and Triple Band Connectivity

Dual-Band Wireless AC Routers have the ability to broadcast on two different frequencies: 2.4GHz and 5GHz. Not only does this make it backwards compatible, but it also means that they are less prone to interference from other devices.

You can browse the Internet on the 2.4GHz band while streaming HD movies on the 5GHz band and neither band will overload. This means less interference and faster speeds.

D-Link's Triple band routers broadcast on one 2.4GHz channel and two channels for the 5GHz band giving you a total bandwidth of up to 5334 Mbps*.

 

Strong Wi-Fi signal with Beamforming and Wi-Fi AC

Wireless Signals & Beamforming Technology

The way in which radio signals are transmitted is also changing. Out go omni-directional antennas, broadcasting every which way they can, in favour of “beamforming” technology which aims wireless signals directly at Wi-Fi devices. This provides a much stronger signal that is especially beneficial for mobile devices.

 

Better Wi-Fi performance with QoS traffic prioritization

Quality of Service (QoS)

Routers with QoS traffic controls track the type of network traffic (web surfing, online gaming, Skype®, Netflix®) and decide which application deserves higher priority. This improves your online experience by ensuring that high priority traffic like Netflix streaming is prioritised over other network traffic ensuring the best video quality and user experience across all devices on the network.

 

 

* Combined speeds of the DCS-895L at 2167Mbps for each of the two 5GHz bands + 1000Mbps on the 2.4GHz band. Sours: https://eu.dlink.com/uk/en/technology/wi-fi-ac-explained
Wireless AC Wave 2 As Fast As Possible

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