Mani mogul

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Jagat Gosain

Empress Consort of Emperor Jahangir

Rajkumari of Marwar

Manavati Bai (Marwari: मानवती बाई; 13 May 1573 – 19 April 1619), better known by her title, Jagat Gosain (Persian:جگات گوسینن), was the consort of the fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir and the mother of his successor, Shah Jahan.[1][2][3][4] Her title means (in Persian) 'Mistress of the World' and (in Sanskrit) 'Priestess of the World'.[5][6]

She is also known as Jodh Bai (Princess of Jodhpur),[7][8]Taj Bibi (Lady of the Crown) and was also given the posthumous title of Bilqis Makani (Lady Of Pure Abode).[9][10] She should not be confused with Mariam-uz-Zamani, who was also wrongly named "Jodha Bai" by European historians.[11]

By birth, she was a Rajput princess of Marwar (present-day Jodhpur) and was the daughter of Raja Udai Singh (popularly known as Mota Raja), the Rathore ruler of Marwar and the full-sister of Sawai Raja Sur Singh, another Rathore ruler of Marwar and Maharaja Kishan Singh, founder of Kishangarh.[12][13][14]


Born on 13 May 1573 as Manavati Bai, Mani Bai or Manmati Bai, she was known popularly as Jodh Bai (the Jodhpur princess).[15][14][16][17] She belonged to the Rathore clan of Rajputs and was the daughter of Raja Udai Singh,[8] the ruler of Marwar (present-day Jodhpur).[18] Udai Singh was popularly known by the sobriquet Mota Raja (the fat king).[19] Her mother was Rajavat Kachvahi Manrang Devi,[20] the principal consort of her father[21] and daughter of Raja Askaran of Narwar (d.1599),[22] who was also briefly Raja of Amber before being ousted in favour of his uncle, Bharmal.[23]

Her paternal grandfather was Maldeo Rathore,[24] under whose rule Marwar turned into a strong Rajput Kingdom that resisted foreign rule and challenged the invaders for northern supremacy. Maldeo Rathore refused to ally with either the Sur Empire or the Mughal Empire after Humayun regained control of North India in 1555. This policy was continued by his son and successor, Chandrasen Rathore.[25]

After the death of Maldeo Rathore in 1562, a fratricidal war for succession started and Chandrasen crowned himself in the capital, Jodhpur. But his reign was short lived as Emperor Akbar's army occupied Merta in the same year and the capital Jodhpur in 1563.[26]

After the death of Rao Chandrasen in January 1581, Marwar was brought under direct Mughal administration. In August 1583, Akbar restored the throne of Marwar to Udai Singh, who, unlike his predecessors, submitted to the Mughals and subsequently joined the Mughal service.[26]

Marriage to Jahangir[edit]

17th century portrait of Jagat Gosain

According to Muni Lal, the young Jagat Gosain is said to have caught the eye of the Prince Salim when he was attending a function with his mother and other senior ladies of the harem. He is said to have immediately proposed for marriage. The Emperor was reluctant to give his consent but only agreed upon intercession of Hamida Banu.[27] She married the 16 year-old Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession) on 11 January 1586.[28] The marriage settlement was fixed at seventy-five lakhs tankas.[27] Akbar, himself, accompanied by the ladies of the harem, went to the Raja's house where the marriage was solemnised.[29][30] The marriage ceremony was a lavish one featuring both Hindu fire ceremonies, in presence of Priest chanting Sanskrit verses, as well as Muslim proprieties in presence of Qadi and an array of military and civilian dignitaries.[31]

According to Murārdān,[32] Rana Kalyan Das Rathore took offence at this marriage and was angry at Mota Raja and had remarked –

Why has a daughter been married to the Turks? I shall kill the Prince and Mota Raja!

When the Mota Raja heard to this remark, he informed Akbar who ordered him to kill Kalyan Das. Kalyan Das fled the Imperial Camp to Siwana. Udai Singh sent two of his sons, Bhopat and Jaisingh to Siwana. But the fort and opponent proved too strong for them and they were forced to flee back. On the face of this defeat, Mota Raja received permission from Akbar to leave the imperial camp. After his return to Marwar, he led a force against Siwana himself. Kalyan Das, realizing defeat is imminent, had his wives perform jauhar and himself led his men to die fighting. After this victory, Siwana was handed over to Mota Raja.[33]

She was granted the title "Jagat Gosain" on account of her ability and learning.[34] This marriage served very well cause for the house of Marwar. Marwar alliance with Mughal would have broken down due to religious strain estrangement had Jahangir and Shah Jahan not been bound by blood ties. After this marriage Udai Singh and brothers and nephews of Jodh bai succeeded in gaining confidence of their contemporary rules and were recipient of Royal favours.[35]

Although the marriage was a political one, Jagat was known not only for her beauty, charm and soft voice but for her wit, courage, and spontaneity of response - all of which greatly endeared her to her husband during the early years of their marriage.[36][24] She is believed to have been a good singer and well versed in music. After her marriage, she was placed under group of expert musicians for proper training.[37][38]

In 1590, she gave birth to her first child, a daughter, named Begum Sultan, who died at the age of one.[39] On 5 January 1592, she gave birth to Salim's third son, who was named 'Khurram' ("joyous") by his grandfather, the Emperor Akbar. The prince, who was to become the future emperor Shah Jahan, was Akbar's favourite grandson and in the words of Jahangir "was more attentive to my father [Akbar] than all [my] children... He recognized him as his own child."[15] After the birth of Shah Jahan, she was given the title Taj Bibi.

Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum (Akbar's chief wife)[40][41] that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness.[42] So, when Khurram was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from Jagat Gosaini and handed him over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care and Akbar could fulfill his wife's wish, to raise a Mughal emperor.[42] Jagat was consoled with a magnificent gift of rubies and pearls.[43]

Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care.[44] The two shared a close relationship with each other as Jahangir noted in his memoirs, that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own [son]."[45] Khurram remained with her until he had turned almost 14. After Akbar's death in 1605, the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, and thus, became closer to his biological mother.[42] In the intervening years, Jagat had given birth to her third (and last) child in 1597, a daughter, Luzzat-un-nissa, who died in infancy.[39]

According to Findly, Jagat Gosain seems to have lost her husband's favour quite early on in their marriage,[46] whereas according to S. S. Gupta, she was the favorite wife of Jahangir till the arrival of her arch-rival in the imperial harem, Nur Jahaṇ, of whom Jagat was scornful.[47] Jahangir had married her in 1611 and from the time of their marriage until his death, Nur Jahan was indisputably his most favourite wife.[48] Even prior to his marriage with Nur Jahan, Jahangir's chief consort and Padshah Begum was his wife, Saliha Banu Begum, who held this position from the time of their marriage till her death in 1620, after which these honorable titles were passed on to Nur Jahan.[15]

The Jahangiri Mahal at Agra Fort used to be the residence of Jagat Gosain, as chosen by Jahangir.[49][50] The West side of the quadrangle, surrounded by oblong niches with portraits of Hindu deity, was her temple.[51]

The Kanch Mahal, sometimes called Jodh Bai's Mahal, located at Sikandra, is said to have been built by Jahangir for Jagat Gosain.[52] Also the area called 'Taj Ganj' in Agra is said to named in her honour.[53]

She is also said to have founded a village named Sohagpura, which is wholly dedicated to manufacturing of glass bangles.[54]


Jagat Gosain died on 19 April 1619 at Akbarabad (present-day Agra).[55] Jahangir noted the death briefly:

On Friday, the 30th, the mother(Jodh baī) of Shāh-Jahān attained the mercy of God.

— Jahangir, Emperor of India, Tūzuk-i-Jahangīrī, Volume II p. 84

Shah Jahan, as noted by Jahangir, was inconsolable and

The next day I myself went to the house of that precious son, and having condoled with him in every way, took him with me to the palace.

— Jahangir, Emperor of India, Tūzuk-i-Jahangīrī, Volume II p. 84

According to Muni Lal, Shah Jahan was so indulged in grief on the death of his mother that he, "For twenty - one days he attended no public entertainment and subsisted on simple vegetarian meals . " and Arjumand Banu "personally supervised the distribution of food to the poor during the three - week mourning period and led the recitation of the holy Quran every morning" and "gave her husband many a lesson on the substance of life and death , and begged him not to grieve".[56]

After her death, Jahangir ordered that she be called Bilqis Makani ("the Lady of Pure Abode")[57] in all of the official documents.[58] Her death, along with the retirement of Mariam-uz-Zamani, led to decline of Rajput influence on Mughal Harem.[1]

She was buried in Dahra Bagh in Suhagpura, Agra (present-day Bohgipura, Agra) as per her wishes.[15][59] Her tomb was a square building of 78 feet on all sides and consisted of a high dome, gateways, towers and a garden situated in the cantonment area. It had a large vaulted underground chamber, into which four inclined passage descended. A marble cenotaph is believed to have existed below. Her tomb stood on two platforms, one higher than other. The first platform extended 38 feet from the tomb and the second about 44 feet from the first. On the east side, 670 feet away was a grand gate and on the west side, 657 feet away stood stood a Masjid. Between the tomb and the gateway and the tomb and Masjid were two raised platforms , one on each side of 42 feet square.[60] All of this was blown up in 1832 with gunpowder, for the sake of its site and material, stone and brick, which the British needed.[61]

On 1921, a chattri was constructed marking the site of her tomb using design made in the Archeological Superintendent Office. The Chattri is built exactly on the site of the original crypt chamber. The construction of the Chattri was funded by the Maharajadhiraja of Burdwan and cost about Rs 200(in 1921). The Chattri is known as 'Chattrie making the site of the Empress Jodhbai's Tomb' or simply 'Jodhbai Ki Chattri'.[62][63]


With Jahangir, Jagat is confirmed to have three children:

  • Begum Sultan (9 October 1590, Lahore, Mughal Empire – September 1591, Mughal Empire)
  • Muhammad Khurram (5 January 1592, Lahore, Mughal Empire – 22 January 1666, Agra Fort, Agra, Mughal Empire, buried in Taj Mahal, Agra)
  • Luzzat-un-Nissa (3 October 1597, Kashmir, Mughal Empire – c. 1603, Allahabad, Mughal Empire)

In popular culture[edit]

  • Jagat Gosain is a principal character in Indu Sundaresan's award-winning historical novel The Twentieth Wife (2002)[64] as well as in its sequel The Feast of Roses (2003).[65]
  • Nayani Dixit portrayed Jagat Gosain in EPIC channel's critically acclaimed historical drama Siyaasat (based on the Twentieth Wife).
  • Jagat Gosain is a character in novel Nur Jahan's Daughter (2005) written by Tanushree Poddar.[66]
  • Jagat Gosain is a principal character in the novel Nurjahan: A historical novel by Jyoti Jafa.[67]
  • Jagat Gosain is a character in the novel Beloved Empress Mumtaz Mahal: A Historical Novel by Nina Consuelo Epton.[68]
  • Jagat Gosain as Jodh Bai is a character in Alex Rutherford's novel Ruler of the World[69](2011) as well as in its sequel The Tainted Throne[70] (2012) of the series Empire of the Moghul.
  • Jagat Gosain as Jodi Bai is a character in the novel Taj, a Story of Mughal India by Timeri Murari.[71]
  • Jagat Gosain was character in Doordarshan's 2001 TV series, Noorjahan.



  1. ^ abTrimizi, S. A. I. (1989). Mughal Documents. Manohar. p. 31.
  2. ^Sarkar, Jadunath (1952). Mughal Administration. M. C. Sarkar. pp. 156–57.
  3. ^Manuel, edited by Paul Christopher; Lyon, Alynna; Wilcox, Clyde (2012). Religion and Politics in a Global Society Comparative Perspectives from the Portuguese-Speaking World. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 68. ISBN .CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^Eraly, Abraham (2007). Emperors of the Peacock Throne, The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 299. ISBN .
  5. ^Shyamaldas, Kaviraj (1888). Translated by Prasad, Babu Ram. "The Mother of Jahangir". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Asiatic Society (Kolkata, India). 57 (1.2): 71.
  6. ^Bakshi, Shiri Ram; Mittra, Sangh (2002). The Saints of India: Mira Bai Vol. 16. p. 59.
  7. ^Findly, p. 396
  8. ^ abtransl.; ed.; Thackston, annot. by Wheeler M. (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. New York [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 13. ISBN .CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  9. ^Sharma, Sudha (2016). The Status of Muslim Women in Medieval India. SAGE Publications India. p. 144. ISBN .
  10. ^Lal, K.S. (1988). The Mughal harem. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. p. 149. ISBN .
  11. ^Jhala, Angma Dey (2011). Royal Patronage, Power and Aesthetics in Princely India. Pickering & Chatto Limited. p. 119.
  12. ^Shujauddin, Mohammad; Shujauddin, Razia (1967). The Life and Times of Noor Jahan. Lahore: Caravan Book House. p. 50.
  13. ^Balabanlilar, Lisa (2015). Imperial Identity in the Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern South and Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 10. ISBN .
  14. ^ abThe Mertiyo Rathors of Merta, Rajasthan ; Volume II. p. 46.
  15. ^ abcdFindly, p. 125
  16. ^The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. 2019. pp. xiii.
  17. ^Tillotson, Giles (2008). Taj Mahal. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 28. ISBN .
  18. ^Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India : from Sultanat to the Mughals (Revised ed.). New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 116. ISBN .
  19. ^Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1986). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 418. ISBN .
  20. ^Soma Mukherjee, Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions (2001), p. 128
  21. ^Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup. Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 58.
  22. ^Richard Saran and Norman P. Ziegler, The Mertiyo Rathors of Merto, Rajasthan (2001), p. 45
  23. ^Sarkar, J. N. (1994) [1984]. A History of Jaipur (Reprinted ed.). Orient Longman. p. 33. ISBN .
  24. ^ abLal, K.S. (1988). The Mughal harem. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. p. 27. ISBN .
  25. ^Bose, Melia Belli (2015). Royal Umbrellas of Stone: Memory, Politics, and Public Identity in Rajput Funerary Art. BRILL. p. 150. ISBN .
  26. ^ abSarkar 1994, p. 41
  27. ^ abLal, Muni (1983). Jahangir. p. 24.
  28. ^Dimensions of Indian Womanhood, Volume 3. 1993. p. 338.
  29. ^Jahangir, Emperor Of Hindustan (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Translated by Thackston, W. M. Washington, D. C. : Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution ; New York : Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN .
  30. ^Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 59.
  31. ^Nicoll, Fergus (3 April 2018). Shah-Jahan: The Rise and Fall of the Mughal Emperor. Penguin Random House Private India Limited.
  32. ^Kaviraj Murardanji ki Khyat ka Tarjuma. p. 605.
  33. ^The Mertiyo Rathors of Merta, Rajasthan Vol II. pp. 278–279.
  34. ^Lal Shrivastava, Ashirbadi (1973). Society and culture in 16th century India. p. 293.
  35. ^Bhargava, Vishweshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 59.
  36. ^Findly, p. 124
  37. ^Singh, S. B. Life and Times of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. p. 372.
  38. ^Azhar, Mirza Ali. King Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh, Volume 2. p. 67.
  39. ^ abMoosvi, Shireen (2008). People, taxation, and trade in Mughal India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN .
  40. ^Burke, S. M. (1989). Akbar, the greatest Mogul. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 142.
  41. ^Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (1999). The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Translated by Thackston, Wheeler M. Oxford University Press. p. 437. ISBN .
  42. ^ abcFaruqui, Munis D. (27 August 2012). Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN .
  43. ^Diana; Preston, Michael (2008). A teardrop on the cheek of time : the story of the Taj Mahal. London: Corgi. ISBN .
  44. ^Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 299. ISBN . Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  45. ^Jahangir (1968). Henry Beveridge (ed.). The Tūzuk-i-Jahāngīrī: or, Memoirs of Jāhāngīr, Volumes 1–2. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 48.
  46. ^Findly, p. 49
  47. ^Gupta, Subhadra Sen. MAHAL: Power and Pageantry in the Mughal Harem. Hachette, UK.
  48. ^Findly, p. 126
  49. ^Preservation of National Monuments: ... Report of the Curator of Ancient Monuments in India for the Year ..., Issue 1. India: Government Central Branch Press. 1882. pp. vi.
  50. ^Gazetteer Of Agra. 1905. p. 216.
  51. ^Havell, E. B. A Handbook to Agra and the Taj Sikandra, Fatehpur-Sikri and the Neighbourhood. p. 29.
  52. ^F.J. McBride, Sikandra 1840-1940 (Sikandra, 1940), p.13.
  53. ^Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rajasthan, India: Rupa & Company. p. 536.
  54. ^Rawat, Dr. Sugandh (2020). THE WOMEN OF MUGHAL HAREM. Evincepub Publishing. p. 182.
  55. ^The Shah Jahan Nama of 'Inayat Khan. Oxford University Press. 1990. pp. xl.
  56. ^Lal, Muni (1986). Shah Jahan. Vikas Publishing House. p. 52.
  57. ^Findly, p. 94
  58. ^Findly, p. 162
  59. ^Shrivastava, Ashirbadi Laal (1973). Society and culture in 16th century India. Shiv Lal Agarwala. p. 293.
  60. ^Beglar, J. D. (1871–1872). "Delhi". Archeological Survey of India. IV: 121–122 – via Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing.
  61. ^Nath, R. (1989). Histographical Study of Indo-Muslim Study: Medieval Architecture of India and Pakistan. Historical Research Documentation Programme. p. 10. ISBN .
  62. ^Annual Report. Office of Archeological Survey of India. 1922. p. 2.
  63. ^Annual Progress Report of the Superintendent, Muhammadan and British Monuments, Northern Circle. Archeological Survey of India, Northern Circle. 1921. p. 11.
  64. ^Sundaresan, Indu (2002). Twentieth wife : a novel (Paperback ed.). New York: Washington Square Press. p. 11. ISBN .
  65. ^Sundaresan, Indu (2003). The Feast of Roses: A Novel. Simon and Schuster. ISBN .
  66. ^Podder, Tanushree (2005). Nur Jahan's Daughter. New Delhi: Rupa & Co. ISBN .
  67. ^Jafa, Jyoti (1978). Nurjahan: A historical novel. India: Writer's Workshop.
  68. ^Epton, Nina Consuelo (1996). Beloved Empress Mumtaz Mahal: A Historical Novel. Roli Books.
  69. ^Rutherford, Alex (2011). Ruler of the World. Hachette UK. ISBN .
  70. ^Rutherford, Alex (2012). The Tainted Throne. Hachette UK. ISBN .
  71. ^Murari, Timeri (2004). Taj, a Story of Mughal India. Penguin.
  72. ^Shyam Singh Ratnawat, Krishna Gopal Sharma, History and culture of Rajasthan: from earliest times upto 1956 A.D. (1999), p.162
  73. ^The Merto Rathors Of Merta, Rajasthan; Volume II (1966), p.29
  74. ^Sarkar 1994, p. 28


External links[edit]


Aditya Chopra

Indian filmmaker

Aditya Chopra (born 21 May 1971) is an Indian filmmaker who works in Hindi cinema.[7] His work as a director includes Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), Mohabbatein (2000), Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi (2008), and Befikre (2016).[8][9]

He is also the current Chairman of India's multi-national film, media, and entertainment conglomerate Yash Raj Films (YRF), becoming the second person to hold that position in the company's history after Sanjeev Kohli.[10] Chopra has produced several commercially viable projects including off-beat content not necessarily fitting into the realm of "masala films". These production efforts have accumulated worldwide earnings of more than ₹1.2 billion,[11] which is the most for an Indian film producer. Chopra is also the first to move towards the film studio model through independent projects helmed by talent under his banner.[12] Major post-production work of the company is completed at YRF Studios (co-founded by his ex-wife Payal Khanna), where Chopra serves as Chief Executive.[13]

In December 2009, Chopra fought a $3.7 billion hostile takeover bid by Disney, post its acquisitions of Pixar and Marvel.[14] YRF continued as a domestic entity aided by the Tata Sons, as Disney acquired UTV at $500 million.[15] In January 2019, YRF reached a $9.1 billion valuation by SEBI, thereby making it the largest film production company in the history of Indian Cinema; Disney exited all Indian film operations and was liquidated the same year.[16][17][18][19] Apart from emerging as an equitable brand, his company earned the status of a movie mogul through distribution networks spread across the globe.[20] Having denied him admission into the NSD due to his severe stammering as a young applicant, the Film Division of India eventually honored him with the National Award for his achievements in 1995, 2005, 2007 and 2015.[4] The Government of India appealed both Chopra and Mani Ratnam to focus on content created locally under its Make in India and Atmanirbhar Bharat initiatives. In June 2018, he was awarded membership into The Academy by the Producers Guild of America.[21] In May 2020, Chopra refused licensing deals with Amazon, Netflix, and with Apple TV+ opting for traditional film exhibition.[22] YRF finalised plans to launch its own OTT service with Tata ELXSI the same year.[23][24][25] Widely regarded as one of the most influential executives in Indian entertainment, Chopra has however rejected the publicity and fame that came with being Yash Chopra's son and the Chief Executive of Yash Raj Films. He has remained extremely media-shy and a passive individual, battling constant reports of an alleged dysthymic disorder throughout his three-decade career, resulting in very few public photos of him being in existence.[26]

Personal life[edit]

Chopra, the elder son of the late filmmaker Yash Chopra and Pamela Chopra, was born on 21 May 1971. He completed his formal education and acquired his Indian Certificate of Secondary Education from Bombay Scottish School. He graduated from Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics along with Anil Thadani, Karan Johar (who is his first cousin) and Abhishek Kapoor.[27] He was married to Payal Khanna, until their divorce in 2009. The couple had no children. On 21 April 2014, he married actress Rani Mukerji in a private wedding ceremony in Italy.[28] In December 2015, Rani gave birth to their daughter Adira Chopra.[29]


Chopra started his film-making career at the age of 18 as an assistant director, working with his father on films such as Chandni (1989), Lamhe (1991) and Darr (1993). He also wrote his first screenplays for his father's Parampara (1992) and his mother's independently produced film Aaina (1993), which was the only film not directed by his father that he served as an assistant director on. Chopra, after gaining a respectable amount of experience, started independently at the age of 23 with the all-time blockbuster Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge, with Shahrukh Khan and Kajol, for which he was the director and writer. The film was scripted by Chopra and produced by his father Yash Chopra, under the YRF banner. Chopra started work on the script of the film in 1990, at the age of 19, and gradually spent time making about five drafts of the film's original script. Chopra even managed to convince his brother Uday Chopra and cousin Karan Johar, both aspiring filmmakers, to enter the film industry as assistant directors with the film. Chopra once said that the presence of his relatives during the making of the film worked as a huge emotional support. Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge eventually went on to become one of the biggest hits of all time[30] and won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment.[31]

Yash Raj Films[edit]

Chopra eventually went on to write the dialogues and the story of his father's 1997 blockbuster Dil To Pagal Hai, (which won the National Award), also made under YRF. His next film as a director was Mohabbatein with Amitabh Bachchan and Shahrukh Khan which gave the yesteryear star a new life in his film career, and also launched his brother Uday Chopra into the film industry. The film was also written and co-produced by Chopra and fared very well at the box office. The next film under the banner was Mere Yaar Ki Shaadi Hai, in June 2002 which also starred his brother Uday alongside Tulip Joshi, Bipasha Basu and Jimmy Sheirgill. The film did moderately well at the box office.[32] The studio's final release that year was Saathiya in December 2002 which starred Vivek Oberoi opposite Rani Mukerji

2004 breakthrough[edit]

In 2004, Chopra produced Hum Tum, Dhoom and Veer Zaara (for which he was also the screenwriter) under the YRF banner. All three films went on to become critical and commercial blockbusters, earning more than ₹199 crore (US$26 million)[33] (unadjusted for inflation) in the worldwide market. The films became the seventh, fourth and highest-grossing Indian films of 2004. The company won most of the Indian film awards in the year, with Veer Zaara also winning the National Award. This was considered a major breakthrough for this film producing company and cemented its position as the leader of the Indian Entertainment for the following decades, to date.

Chopra then produced and wrote several other highly commercial and critically acclaimed films over the years, namely Bunty Aur Babli, Salaam Namaste, Fanaa, Dhoom 2 and Chak De India (which also won the National Award). Chopra also made his third film as a director in 2008 with Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi starring Shahrukh Khan and launching newcomer Anushka Sharma. The film became the highest-grossing film for Shahrukh Khan and YRF at that time, grossing ₹172 crore (US$23 million)[34] in the worldwide market. These films established them as one of the most powerful film production companies in Indian cinema, giving Aditya Chopra an estimated net worth of ₹6,350 crore (US$840 million)[16] (trade and stock market estimate) and making Chopra one of the most influential people in the country.

YRF launched a number of budding screenwriters and directors under their banner throughout these years. Directors and screenwriters such as Karan Johar (his Kuch Kuch Hota Hai was co-produced and released by Yash Raj Film Distributors), Kunal Kohli, Kabir Khan, Sanjay Gadhvi, Jaideep Sahni, Siddharth Anand, Shimit Amin, Habib Faisal, Shaad Ali, Maneesh Sharma and Vijay Acharya debuted under YRF and have gone on to become independent entities in films. The company also produced films for filmmakers such as Anil Mehta and Pradeep Sarkar under their banner. The company was eventually ranked at Number 1 (among the most successful film production companies in India) in a survey conducted by Filmfare and at Number 27 (among the most successful film production companies in the world) in a survey by The Hollywood Reporter, both under the vice-chairmanship of Chopra.[35]

YRF Studios[edit]

Upon realising the lack of a proper film shooting studio during their years of film-making, YRF went on build their dream film production studio in the year 2005, located in Mumbai city. The first film to be shot in YRF Studios was the company's 2006 critical and commercial blockbuster Fanaa. Some of the notable films of outside banners that were shot in the studio over the years are; Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006), Partner (2007), Taare Zameen Par (2007), Dostana (2008), Wanted (2009), 3 Idiots (2009), My Name Is Khan (2010), Dabangg (2010), Bodyguard (2011), Ra.One (2011), Agneepath (2012), Chennai Express (2013), Jai Ho (2014) and P.K. (2014). The studio was created and designed by Chopra and his then wife, Payal Khanna and is equipped with high technology film shooting equipment and materials. The studio, sprawling over 20 acres (81,000 m2) and towering up to six floors, is used to shoot films for the company and is also rented for other filming and television shoots such as 10 Ka Dum and Kaun Banega Crorepati for Sony and Kya Aap Paanchvi Pass Se Tez Hain, Koffee With Karan and Satyamev Jayate for STAR.[36]

YRF Home Entertainment[edit]

Apart from film production, Chopra's YRF also distributed (theatrical, home entertainment and satellite) and canvassed a wide variety of Independent films that came out of the Parallel Cinema industry of India, such as Godmother (1999), Zubeidaa (2001), Maqbool (2004), Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities (2004), Black (2005), My Brother Nikhil (2005), Mangal Pandey: The Rising (2005) and Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara (2005), that helped them leverage with a powerful film production house such as his, and thereby reach a wider audience on their release. YRF Distributors also released several big-budgeted films such as Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998), Biwi No.1 (1999), Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai (2000), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), Koi Mil Gaya (2003), Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003), Krrish (2006) and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006). In 2013, the company's distribution leg reportedly sold the satellite rights of its highly anticipated venture Dhoom 3 for ₹75 crore (US$10 million).[37] to Sony Entertainment Television.[38]

YRF Music[edit]

After constantly delivering musical successes such as Darr, Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Dil To Pagal Hai throughout the years of its existence, the company decided to leverage on their growing clout in the music industry. YRF established their independent feature music distribution leg under the name YRF Music in 2004. The leg was developed for the purpose of digital as well as physical distribution of all the film soundtracks released under the banner. The first soundtrack to be distributed under YRF Music was the company's critical and commercial musical blockbuster Veer Zaara. The leg established careers of many budding music composers throughout the years, who leveraged themselves by scoring music for YRF projects such as Jatin-Lalit (Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge), Shankar-Ehsaan-Loy (Bunty Aur Babli), Pritam (Dhoom), Vishal-Shekhar (Salaam Namaste), Salim-Sulaiman (Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi), Amit Trivedi (Ishaqzaade), Ram Sampath (Luv Ka The End), Sajid–Wajid (Daawat-e-Ishq), Sohail Sen (Mere Brother Ki Dulhan), Raghu Dixit (Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge), Sachin-Jigar (Shuddh Desi Romance) and Amartya Rahut (Aurangzeb).[39]

Walt Disney buyout-refusal[edit]

The Walt Disney Company entered Indian Entertainment in 2007 through a three-film co-production agreement (Ta Ra Rum Pum, Thoda Pyaar Thoda Magic and Roadside Romeo) with YRF. Disney's move was seen as a bid to increase its global clout and finally enter the increasingly lucrative Indian Cinema arena. The company offered a 49% acquisition of YRF at ₹2,500 crore (US$330 million)[14] (unadjusted for inflation) in 2009, which took the valuation of the Indian entertainment company to ₹5,000 crore (equivalent to ₹110 billion or US$1.4 billion in 2020),[40] at the time. YRF however declined the acquisition offer made by the American conglomerate.

In 2011, a 99% share acquisition offer by Disney was accepted by UTV at ₹2,000 crore (US$270 million)[41] (unadjusted for inflation). The two companies together established Disney UTV, that functioned as the Indian subsidiary of the American company. In December 2016, Disney announced that is restructuring its Indian operations and UTV will no longer produce movies and will focus only on distribution of its Hollywood films.[42]

As vice-chairman[edit]

The company saw an all-time low, with several of their high budgeted films not doing well at the box office, despite favourable critical reviews and the company thereby suffering losses amounting to millions from 2007 to 2010. The films broke YRF's perfect success ratio and were oddly released one after another. Some of the most unsuccessful films produced under the banner were Jhoom Barabar Jhoom, Laaga Chunari Mein Daag, Tashan, Thoda Pyaar Thoda Magic, Roadside Romeo, and Pyaar Impossible. Chopra then took over as the Vice Chairman of Yash Raj Films in 2010, soon after the release of the film Badmaash Company under the same banner.[31]

2011 landmark deal[edit]

In 2011, the company took the critical decision of banking on the successes of 3 Idiots, Ra.One and Bodyguard and went into production of three individual mainstream films with Aamir Khan for Dhoom 3 (for which Chopra wrote the story), Shahrukh Khan for Jab Tak Hai Jaan (for which Chopra wrote the story, screenplay and dialogue) and with Salman Khan for Ek Tha Tiger (for which Chopra wrote the story), a feat that has never been achieved by any film production company to date. The move was seen as a landmark deal by YRF as it engaged three of the most successful box office actors of Indian Cinema in independent projects at the time. Moreover, the three films turned out to be the most expensive productions by YRF; Ek Tha Tiger was produced at ₹75 crore (US$10 million),[43]Jab Tak Hai Jaan was produced at ₹60 crore (US$8.0 million)[44] and Dhoom 3 was produced at ₹150 crore (US$20 million).[45]

All three of these films shattered Box Office records of India and went on to become some of the highest-grossing films of their time. Ek Tha Tiger, which released on the 66th Independence Day of India, earned approximately ₹320 crore (US$42 million)[53] and thereby became the eleventh highest-grossing film of Indian Cinema.Jab Tak Hai Jaan opened worldwide on the Diwali day of 2012 and went on to earn ₹241 crore (US$32 million)[49] and became the fifteenth highest-grossing film in India. Dhoom 3 released in (Hindi, Tamil, Telugu and Arabic) on the Christmas week of 2013 and grossed approximately ₹542 crore (US$72 million),[54][55] in the worldwide market and went on to become the fourth highest-grossing film of Indian Cinema, as of January 2014[update]. The three films gradually helped re-cement the dominant position of YRF in the Indian Entertainment market.

As chairman[edit]

After the demise of his father Yash Chopra in October 2012, Aditya Chopra was elevated to the position of Chairman and Chief Executive of the company's studio wing. Facing overwhelming pressure by the Indian bourses to be publicly listed around the same period, the company went for a soft-Launch on 3 January 2013.

The company received angel investment by institutional fund-raisers such as LIC of India, RNT Associates, PremjiInvest, Catamaran Ventures, Maruti Udyog and Unilazer Ventures. YRF was made open to Indian enterprises only and no FDI was accepted. Venture capitalists also showed interest with Adi Godrej, Y. C. Deveshwar, Kumar Birla, Arundhati Bhattacharya, Anand Mahindra, Chanda Kochhar, Sunil Mittal, Shikha Sharma and Uday Kotak investing undisclosed sums. YRF came out with more films, under the chairmanship of Chopra and the new management.[56]

Work with newcomers (Talent Management)[edit]

Apart from producing big-budgeted films with established actors, YRF also announced several films featuring relative newcomers in the fourth quarter of Fiscal year 2012; Aurangzeb starring Prithviraj Sukumaran, Sashaa Agha and Arjun Kapoor, Gunday starring Ranveer Singh, Bewakoofiyan starring Ayushmann Khurrana and Sonam Kapoor, Daawat-e-Ishq with Aditya Roy Kapoor, Mardaani with Rani Mukerji and Kill Dil starring Ali Zafar and Govinda.[57] The films released all through 2013 and 2014 were seen as a strategic move by the company to infuse newer talent into Indian Cinema in the form of actors, screenwriters, directors and technicians. In a bid to break away from the traditional star system of Indian Cinema, the company ventured into producing low-budgeted independent films with new talent (actors, creatives and technicians) from 2008. Apart from working with upcoming actors, the company independently launched several new faces as leading actors in several of their big-budgeted films through their home banner and through Y Films,[58] including:

YRF Entertainment[edit]

Sensing a keen following of Indian Cinema in Japan during the Festival de Cannes, YRF Studios decided to re-release Ek Tha Tiger on 8 March 2013 and Jab Tak Hai Jaan on 20 April 2013 in an association with The Nikkatsu Corporation. The deal was further extended to the release of Dhoom 3 on 25 December 2013 during the MAMI Film Festival.[61]

In a bid to strengthen their foothold in the United States and the European market, the company established its international film producing leg; YRF Entertainment, which was solely focused on production and financing of international film content. The first film to independently release under the banner was the 2012 romantic comedy The Longest Week which starred Olivia Wilde, Jason Bateman and Billy Crudup. The film did moderately well in the worldwide box office and managed to break-even.[62]

The next film to be released under YRF Entertainment is The Grace of Monaco starring Nicole Kidman and Tim Roth. The film is co-produced by Arash Amel. Primary filming of the project is complete and the film is slated for a March 2014 release. The company also announced its maiden Anglo-Indian film project that would be co-produced by Mira Nair under the Mirabai Films banner and directed by Shimit Amin. In 2013, the company also announced its next venture, Seducing Ingrid Bergman based on the life of Ingrid Bergman, written by Chris Greenhalgh and Arash Amel.[63]

YRF South[edit]

YRF forayed into regional Indian film production in 2013, with Aaha Kalyanam, a remake of their 2010 critical and commercial blockbuster Band Baaja Baaraat starring Nani and debutant Vaani Kapoor. The Tamil-Telugu bilingual project would be directed by Gokul Krishna and produced by Chopra. YRF plans to launch both the lead actress and director with this film. The untitled film completed the first schedule of its principal photography in Chennai in May 2013, with the next two schedules to be held in Hyderabad and Mysore in July 2013. Moreover, the studio also released Tamil and Telugu versions of its Dhoom 3 for the South Indian market. The company plans to deliver remakes from its existing catalog as well as new and original regional content (in Tamil and Telugu), but also content that is set to break into other regional film markets (Malayalam and Tulu) of the south.[64]


Throughout the years of its existence, YRF inked various strategic business agreements with independent film and media entities present in the country.

Legal issues[edit]


Photographers of the Indian media caught a glimpse of the extremely reclusive Chopra on 27 December 2008. Chopra's Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi and Aamir Khan's Ghajini were the two big Indian releases of the year 2008 and were pitted against each other by the Press; Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi was to release on Diwali and Ghajini was to release on Christmas, with a gap of a few weeks between them. Chopra was present at a private screening of Ghajini that was held by Khan, for members of the film industry. Chopra was seen leaving through the back entrance of the theatre premise around 2 AM, just before the end credits of the film. On spotting multiple journalists outside the venue, he reportedly panicked and desperately sprinted towards his car to avoid being photographed. Chopra pulled down the sun visor of his car and hid inside it as he drove away. He even dropped his phone and damaged it, in the process. Images of a scared and petrified Chopra covering his face with his arms became front-page news of a leading Indian tabloid. The article called Chopra a very powerful man, behaving like a trapped animal, even though it carried a statement by "one of his close friends" who called him a simple, introverted guy. The event however fuelled further reports of Chopra suffering from an alleged social anxiety disorder and/or APD.[75]

Son of Sardar[edit]

In 2012, Ajay Devgan, Viacom 18 Motion Pictures and Eros International together moved the Competition Commission of India against Yash Raj Films and Aditya Chopra, accusing the company of using monopolistic business practices and rampantly abusing their dominant position and clout in the Entertainment Industry of India by entering into a tie-in arrangement with 1,500 single screen film exhibitors (out of a total of 2,100) of India, that obliged them to showcase the company's Jab Tak Hai Jaan (and not Son of Sardar) on the Diwali week of 2012 and continue its theatrical run for two weeks after the worldwide release. The trio eventually moved the Competition Appellate Tribunal on 30 October 2012 against YRF but were turned down by the bench heading the Tribunal.

Both films opened on 13 November 2012; Jab Tak Hai Jaan released on 3500 screens and Son of Sardar released on 2000 screens, in the worldwide market. However, in November 2013, the CCI dismissed the case filing as they found YRF to not be in contravention of the Competition Act of India; YRF won the case.[76]


Raees was a film produced by Excel Entertainment and Red Chillies Entertainment helmed by Rahul Dholakia. Principal photography of the film was completed in April 2015 and a few months were allotted to its post-production work.[77] A teaser/trailer of the film was released across social media platforms and attached to Bajrangi Bhaijaan on 17 July 2015 announcing it as a 5 July 2016 release; packaged and presented as an Eid project.[78] However, sensing an opportunity in the same period, YRF went ahead to green-light its own Sultan, slated for release on the same day, in January 2016. Principal photography with Salman Khan and Anushka Sharma was completed in 3 months followed by post-production work being completed in May.[79] A teaser/trailer and other marketing material featuring both Khan and Sharma were released simultaneously starting in April across platforms and networks. The film was ready for a 5 July release and as a result, around 4230 theatre screens available in India would have been divided among the two films.[80]

Realising a loss in business to both films, Ritesh Sidhwani and Shahrukh Khan, the producers of Raees approached Chopra to work out a settlement to ensure both projects are exhibited comfortably across centres.[81] However, Chopra disagreed to shift his release date stating the poor performance of Khan's prior releases (Happy New Year, Dilwale and Fan) in the global Box Office.[82] Moreover, Chopra ensured that YRF Distributors (his film distribution leg) exhibit Sultan to more than 3100 screens (out of the total 4230), apparently abusing his dominant position and clout in the Entertainment Industry of India, an allegation that he has battled several times in the past.

Sultan eventually released on 6 July 2016, as planned by YRF, across 4310 Indian screens and 1130 screens internationally, to gross ₹501 crore (US$67 million) in the worldwide market[83] and Raees was postponed to 26 January 2017, scheduled to release alongside Kaabil on the same day.[84]


In November 2012, YRF green-lit their first Indian-American war drama co-production titled Paani with DreamWorks Pictures.[85] The film was to be helmed by Shekhar Kapur and Sushant Singh Rajput was signed for the lead role in December of the same year.[86] Principal photography was to start in June 2013, and it was planned as a December 2015 release by both Chopra and Kapur.[87]A. R. Rahman was roped in to score the music of the film and pre-production work started in January 2013 with the entire cast and crew at YRF Studios.[88]

In February 2013, Sanjay Leela Bhansali offered the lead role in his Shakespearean romantic-tragedy Ram-Leela, which was scheduled to be shot throughout the year 2013.[89] Chopra, however, advised Rajput to turn down the role to focus solely on Paani and led Bhansali to sign Ranveer Singh (through YRF Talent) instead.[90] In November 2013, Chopra shelved Paani stating the poor financial performance of Rajput's Shuddh Desi Romance and affordability issues faced by YRF during pre-production work.[91]Ram-Leela meanwhile opened to overwhelming critical and box office success in the same period with both Bhansali and Singh being awarded extensively for their work.[92]

Rajput was later signed for another independent YRF projects; Detective Byomkesh Bakshy scheduled to release in April 2015.

Return to film direction: Befikre (2016)[edit]

In September 2015, YRF announced Chopra's directorial comeback, titled Befikre, scheduled for a December 2016 release.[93] In October 2015, it was announced that Ranveer Singh and Vaani Kapoor would be cast in the lead roles.[94][95] In December 2015, YRF announced that the music of the film will be produced by Vishal-Shekhar and Jaideep Sahni, both of whom would return to collaborate with YRF after roughly 9 years.[96] This would mark Chopra's directorial comeback after roughly 8 years (his Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi released in 2008).[97] A theatrical trailer of the film was released at the Eiffel Tower and across social media platforms in the month of October.[98] The film was budgeted at ₹70 crore (US$9.3 million) (including P&A) and released across 2900 screens worldwide on 9 December 2016.[99] It opened to widespread negative reviews across platforms and faced heavy losses to its business because of the currency demonetisation implied by the Government of India a few days prior to its release.[100][101] The film managed to gross ₹63 crore (US$8.4 million) after a two-week theatrical run at the global box office failing to manage break-even business for YRF.[102]


Main article: List of films by Yash Raj Films

Theatrical release only [135]

See also[edit]


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MANI MOGULS LLC is an Active company incorporated on August 12, 2020 with the registered number L20000245646. This Florida Limited Liability company is located at 21100 TORRE DEL LAGO ST., ESTERO, FL, 33928, US and has been running for two years. It currently has one Authorized Member.


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August 12, 2020
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