Java install packages

Java install packages DEFAULT

7 Self-Contained Application Packaging

7.5 Working Through a Deployment Scenario

Consider a scenario where you have a JavaFX application with the following characteristics:

  • Uses several third-party libraries

  • One of the third-party libraries uses JNI and loads a platform-specific native library using

  • Needs a large 1Gb heap

You want to package this application as a self-contained application that does not need admin permissions to install.

It is assumed that your application works fine as a standalone application, that the main JAR file is built in the folder (using <fx:jar>) and that third-party libraries are copied to the directory.

One way to assemble a self-contained application package is shown in Example 7-8, and consists of the following actions:

  • Include all application JAR files.

  • Add native libraries applicable to current platform as resources of type data.

    Ensure that the fileset base directory is set to the folder containing the library. This ensures that the libraries are copied to the top-level application folder.

  • Request a user-level installation with

Note that the top-level application folder is added to the library search path, and therefore can be used.

Example 7-8 shows an example <fx:deploy> task.

Example 7-8 Example <fx:deploy> Task

<fx:deploy nativeBundles="all" width="600" height="400" outdir="${basedir}/dist" outfile="NativeLibDemo"> <fx:application name="NativeLib Demo" mainClass="${javafx.main.class}"/> <fx:resources> <!-- include application jars --> <fx:fileset dir="dist" includes="*.jar"/> <fx:fileset dir="dist" includes="lib/*.jar"/> <!-- native libs for self-contained application --> <!-- assume they are stored as native/windows/x86/JNativeHook.dll native/linux/x86_64/ .... --> <!-- ensure libraries are included as top level elements to get them on java.library.path --> <fx:fileset dir="${basedir}/native/${}/${os.arch}" type="data"> <include name="*.dll"/> <include name="*.jnilib"/> <include name="*.so"/> </fx:fileset> </fx:resources> <!-- Custom JVM setup for application --> <fx:platform> <fx:jvmarg value="-Xmx1024m"/> <fx:jvmarg value="-verbose:jni"/> <property name="" value="something"/> </fx:platform> <!-- request user level installation --> <fx:preferences install="false"/> </fx:deploy>

Java Notes

Distributed as jar files. As extensive as Java's library is, there are sometimes other packages that you want to use. These are almost universally distributed as .jar files. You can access them if you import them.

Where to put predefined .jar files so that the compiler and JRE can find them

A .jar file is basically a .zip file plus a little extra information, the manifest. The jar file may contain one or more packages. Both the compiler and the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) must know where to look for these other jars that you've imported. There are several alternatives.

Modify the CLASSPATH variable to include the jar file


Tell the compiler or IDE where it is

The compiler ( command) and JRE ( command) have parameters that specify where to find additional jar files.

Most IDEs have a way to specify where external jar files are located. See NetBeans.

Put the jar file in the JRE directory

[Avoid - fragile] This directory is automatically searched by the compiler and runtime systems for needed packages. In my Windows installation of Java, the JRE is installed twice, once with the JDK and once so I put it in both. I don't know that both are actually used, but I didn't want to take any chances.

C:\Program Files\Java\jre1.6.0\lib\ext\ C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.6.0\jre\lib\ext\
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Translation(s): English - español


  • Debian recommends the use of OpenJDK packages (openjdk-7-jdk / openjdk-7-jre) instead of non-free packages created by this utility.

java-package provides the ability to build a Debian package from a Java binary distribution by running (with archive files downloaded from providers listed below). Should your interest be more on the development with Java under Debian, then follow the Java link. To learn more about the packaging of Java-written programs and libraries for Debian, see Teams/JavaPackaging.

The package includes the make-jpkg command to do this. Typical usage consists in:

  • downloading one of the java binary archive listed below
  • invoking make-jpkg to build a Debian package from the downloaded archive
  • installing the generated package

Supported Java binary distributions currently include:


  1. Add a "contrib" component to , for example:

    # Debian 8 "Jessie" deb jessie main contrib
  2. Update the list of available packages and install the java-package package:

    # apt-get update && apt-get install java-package && exit
  3. Download the desired Java JDK/JRE binary distribution (Oracle). Choose tar.gz archives or self-extracting archives, do not choose the RPM!

  4. Use java-package to create a Debian package, for example:

    $ make-jpkg jdk-8u51-linux-x64.tar.gz
  5. Install the binary package created:

    $ su # dpkg -i oracle-java8-jdk_8u51_amd64.deb


By default the DebianAlternatives will automatically install the best version of Java as the default version. If the symlinks have been manually set they will be preserved by the tools. The update-alternatives tools try hard to respect explicit configuration from the local admin. Local manual symlinks appear to be an explicit configuration. In order to reset the alternative symlinks to their default value use the option.

# update-alternatives --auto java

If you'd like to override the default to perhaps use a specific version then use and manually select the desired version.

# update-alternatives --display java # update-alternatives --config java

Choose the appropriate number for the desired alternative.

The appropriate java binary will automatically be in PATH by virtue of the alternative symlink.

You may also use the update-alternatives tool from java-common package which lets you update all alternatives belonging to one runtime/development kit at a time. Steps to do so:

  1. List the Java alternatives presently installed and available on your system
    • # sudo update-java-alternatives -l
  2. Set the default Java and update all alternatives
    • # sudo update-java-alternatives -s <alternative>
      • Notes

        • Where <alternative> is the default Java. For example java-1.8.0-openjdk-amd64 or jdk-8-oracle-x64

        • This command will register all the java executables. And create symlinks for each of them.
        • If Terminal return any of the following errors, ignore them. Because ?IceaTea 8 isn't ready yet and those errors are about browser plugin only.

          • error: no alternatives for

          • plugin alternative does not exist: /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64/jre/lib/amd64/


Building process keeps crashing on override_dh_shlibdeps target

This problems is due to missing dependencies of package (related issue: 782132). To fix it simply run as root:

# apt-get install libgl1-mesa-glx libfontconfig1 libxslt1.1 libxtst6 libxxf86vm1 libgtk2.0-0

Building Oracle Java 6 From jdk-6u45-linux-x64.bin

  • Failure target is as above

  • versions 0.56 and 0.61 both have

  • but omits

  • from above is not required

  • Build requires:
# apt-get install libgl1-mesa-glx libgtk2.0-0 libxslt1.1 libxtst6 libxxf86vm1 libxt6

Building Oracle Java 8 on wheezy

When running on wheezy (i686) you can get this message:

[email protected]:~$ fakeroot make-jpkg /home/notroot/jdk-8u101-linux-i586.tar.gz Creating temporary directory: /tmp/make-jpkg.dUA0X8ychf Loading plugins: /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ /usr/share/java-package/ Detected Debian build architecture: i386 Detected Debian GNU type: i486-linux-gnu No matching plugin was found. Removing temporary directory: done

This can be fixed by installing the backports version of the java-package. installs the package if backports are configured correctly. (idea based on bug #750092)


How to Install Java JDK on Windows 10 ( with JAVA_HOME )

What is Package in Java?

PACKAGE in Java is a collection of classes, sub-packages, and interfaces. It helps organize your classes into a folder structure and make it easy to locate and use them. More importantly, it helps improve code reusability.

Each package in Java has its unique name and organizes its classes and interfaces into a separate namespace, or name group.

Although interfaces and classes with the same name cannot appear in the same package, they can appear in different packages. This is possible by assigning a separate namespace to each Java package.


package nameOfPackage;

The following video takes you through the steps of creating a package.

Click here if the video is not accessible

Let’s study package with an example. We define a class and object and later compile this it in our package p1. After compilation, we execute the code as a java package.

How to Create a package?

Creating a package is a simple task as follows

  • Choose the name of the package
  • Include the package command as the first line of code in your Java Source File.
  • The Source file contains the classes, interfaces, etc you want to include in the package
  • Compile to create the Java packages

Step 1) Consider the following package program in Java:

package p1; class c1(){ public void m1(){ System.out.println("m1 of c1"); } public static void main(string args[]){ c1 obj = new c1(); obj.m1(); } }

Creating and Using package in Java


  1. To put a class into a package, at the first line of code define package p1
  2. Create a class c1
  3. Defining a method m1 which prints a line.
  4. Defining the main method
  5. Creating an object of class c1
  6. Calling method m1

Step 2) In next step, save this file as

Creating and Using package in Java

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 3) In this step, we compile the file.

Creating and Using package in Java

The compilation is completed. A class file c1 is created. However, no package is created? Next step has the solution

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 4) Now we have to create a package, use the command

javac –d .

This command forces the compiler to create a package.

The “.” operator represents the current working directory.

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 5) When you execute the code, it creates a package p1. When you open the java package p1 inside you will see the c1.class file.

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 6) Compile the same file using the following code

javac –d ..

Here “..” indicates the parent directory. In our case file will be saved in parent directory which is C Drive

Creating and Using package in Java

File saved in parent directory when above code is executed.

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 7) Now let’s say you want to create a sub package p2 within our existing java package p1. Then we will modify our code as

package p1.p2; class c1{ public void m1() { System.out.println("m1 of c1"); } }

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 8) Compile the file

Creating and Using package in Java

As seen in below screenshot, it creates a sub-package p2 having class c1 inside the package.

Creating and Using package in Java

Step 9) To execute the code mention the fully qualified name of the class i.e. the package name followed by the sub-package name followed by the class name –

java p1.p2.c1

Creating and Using package in Java

This is how the package is executed and gives the output as “m1 of c1” from the code file.

Creating and Using package in Java

How to Import Package

To create an object of a class (bundled in a package), in your code, you have to use its fully qualified name.


java.awt.event.actionListner object = new java.awt.event.actionListner();

But, it could become tedious to type the long dot-separated package path name for every class you want to use. Instead, it is recommended you use the import statement.


import packageName;

Once imported, you can use the class without mentioning its fully qualified name.

import java.awt.event.*; // * signifies all classes in this package are imported import javax.swing.JFrame // here only the JFrame class is imported //Usage JFrame f = new JFrame; // without fully qualified name.

Example: To import package

Step 1) Copy the code into an editor.

package p3; import p1.*; //imports classes only in package p1 and NOT in the sub-package p2 class c3{ public void m3(){ System.out.println("Method m3 of Class c3"); } public static void main(String args[]){ c1 obj1 = new c1(); obj1.m1(); } }

Step 2) Save the file as Compile the file using the command javac –d .

Step 3)Execute the code using the command java p3.c3

Packages – points to note:

  • To avoid naming conflicts packages are given names of the domain name of the company in reverse Ex: com.guru99., com.infosys etc.
  • When a package name is not specified, a class is in the default package (the current working directory) and the package itself is given no name. Hence you were able to execute assignments earlier.
  • While creating a package, care should be taken that the statement for creating package must be written before any other import statements
// not allowed import package p1.*; package p3; //correct syntax package p3; import package p1.*;

the java.lang package is imported by default for any class that you create in Java.

The Java API is very extensive, contains classes which can perform almost all your programming tasks right from Data Structure Manipulation to Networking. More often than not, you will be using API files in your code. You can see the API documentation here.


Install packages java

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How do I install Java ?

Choose the Operating System for instructions to install Java:
Windows Download and Installation
Downloading and installing Java is easy and free. There are a couple ways by which you can get Java for Windows
  • Online download
  • Offline download
Manual installation downloads an IFTW (Install From The Web) executable program file and requires minimum user intervention. When you run this program, it fetches all the required files from the web, so you must remain connected to the Internet during the installation.
  • Administrative permission is required in order to install Java on Microsoft Windows.
  • If you face difficulty using the online download option, try the offline download option.
» Instructions to download and install Java for Windows online

Offline installation requires you to download an executable file available at the manual Java download page, which includes all the files needed for the complete installation at the user's discretion. There is no need to remain connected to the Internet during the installation. The file can also be copied to and installed on another computer that is not connected to the Internet.
  • Administrative permission is required in order to install Java on Microsoft Windows.
» Instructions to download and install Java for Windows offline

Mac Download and Installation
Oracle Java can be installed on Mac versions 10.7.3 or later. A 64-bit browser (Safari, for example) is required to run Oracle Java on Mac.

» Instructions to download and install Java for Mac

Linux Download and Installation
There are two types of installation packages.
  • Java on Linux Platforms
    This is an archive binary file that can be installed by anyone (not only the root users), in any location that you can write to. However, only the root user can install Java into the system location.
  • Java on RPM-based Linux Platforms
    32-bit RPM-based Linux platforms, such as Red Hat and SuSE, use a RPM binary file (.rpm) in the system location. You must be root to perform this installation.
Download the package that best suits your needs. You can download the file to any of the directories on your system.
» Instructions to download and install Java for Linux

Solaris Download and Installation
There are a few ways by which you can get Java for Solaris
  • Solaris SPARC (32-bit)
  • Solaris SPARC (64-bit)
Java comes in the form of a self-extracting binary file. Download the appropriate package for your computer architecture and operating system.
» Instructions to download and install Java for Solaris

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