List of Bollywood films of
Lists of Bollywood films
Films produced by Bollywood film industry of Mumbai, India
This is a list of films produced by Bollywood film industry of Mumbai ordered by year and decade of release. Although "Bollywood" films are generally listed under the Hindi language, most are in Hindi with partial Bhojpuri, Urdu and Punjabi and occasionally other languages. Hindi films can achieve national distribution across at least 22 of India's 29 states.
Speakers of Hindi, Bhojpuri, Urdu, and Punjabi understand the mixed language usage of Bollywood thus extending the viewership to people all over the Indian subcontinent (throughout India and its neighboring countries). Here are some examples - partly Bhojpuri: Panchlait, Manjhi – The Mountain Man and Jabariya Jodi; partly English: Kal Ho Naa Ho, Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna, Dhoom 2, Partner, Om Shanti Om, Kismat Konnection, Kambakkht Ishq and Love Aaj Kal; partly Urdu: Fanaa, Saawariya, Jodhaa Akbar and Kurbaan; partly Punjabi: Jab We Met, Singh Is Kinng, Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi, Love Aaj Kal, Dil Bole Hadippa!, Band Baaja Baaraat, Patiala House, Phillauri and Thande Koyle. Veer-Zaara and Mausam is an equal mix of Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu.
List of most expensive Indian films
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List of highest-grossing Indian films
Wikimedia list article
This is a ranking of the highest grossing Indian films which includes films from various languages based on the conservative global box office estimates as reported by reputable sources. There is no official tracking of domestic box office figures within India, and Indian sites publishing data are frequently pressured to increase their domestic box office estimates.
Indian films have been screened in markets around the world since the early 20th century. As of , there are markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. During the first decade of the 21st century, there was a steady rise in the ticket price, a tripling in the number of theaters and an increase in the number of prints of a film being released, which led to a large increase in the box office collections.
The majority of highest-grossing Indian films are Bollywood (Hindi) films. As of , Bollywood represents 43% of the net box office revenue in India, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, and other regional industries constitute 21%. See List of highest-grossing films in India for domestic gross figures and List of highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets for overseas gross figures.
Global gross figures
The following list shows India's top 25 highest-grossing films, which include films from all the Indian languages. The figures are not adjusted for inflation.
The following list of films is sorted in terms of Indian rupees. Currency conversions to US dollars are also given as reference points, but may not be consistent, as the dollar-rupee exchange rate has varied over time, from 48 rupees per dollar in  to over 65 rupees per dollar in 
|*||Denotes films still running in theatres|
Highest-grossing films by language
Bengali cinema was the center of Indian cinema in the s, and accounted for a quarter of India's film output in the s.Cinema in South India accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls in the s.
Assamese cinema is based in the state of Assam and produces films in Assamese language.
Main article: List of highest-grossing Bengali films
Bengali cinema is the Bengali language film industry centered in the Tollygunge neighborhood of Kolkata, West Bengal. It has been known by the nickname Tollywood, a portmanteau of the words Tollygunge and Hollywood, since
The Bhojpuri cinema produces films in the Bhojpuri language. It caters to an audience from eastern Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar and Nepal.
|1||Sasura Bada Paisawala||Ajay Sinha||Balaji Cinevision Pvt Ltd||₹9 crore (US$million)|||
The Gujarati cinema produces films in Gujarati language and is primarily focused on the audience in Gujarat and Mumbai. The film industry is sometimes referred to as Dhollywood or Gollywood.
|*||Denotes films still running in theatres|
See also: List of highest domestic net collection of Hindi films
The Hindi language film industry, based in Mumbai, India, is frequently known as Bollywood. Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centres of film production in the world.
Bengaluru is the center for the Kannada cinema, films produced in the Kannada language. It is sometimes known by the nickname "Sandalwood".
Malayalam cinema is a part of Indian cinema based in Kerala dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam language. It is sometimes known by the nickname "Mollywood" by certain media outlets. These are the top 10 highest grossing Malayalam films.
The Marathi cinema industry produces films in the Marathi language and is based in the state of Maharashtra, India. India's first full-length film, Raja Harishchandra, was released in in Marathi. It is sometimes known by the nickname "M-town" by media.
|#+||Implies that the film is a bilingual and the gross collection figure includes the worldwide collection of the other simultaneously filmed version.|
Odia cinema is primarily based in Odisha state producing movies mainly in the Odia language and a few movies in Sambalpuri language. The first Odia movie was Sita Vivaha which was released in
Main article: List of highest-grossing Punjabi films
Punjabi cinema, producing films in the Punjabi language, is primarily based in the state of Punjab.
Main article: List of highest-grossing Tamil films
Tamil cinema, the Tamil language film industry is based in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is sometimes colloquially known as "Kollywood", a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood.
|#+||Implies that the film is multilingual and the gross collection figure includes the worldwide collection of the other simultaneously filmed version.|
Main article: List of highest-grossing Telugu films
Telugu cinema, also known by its nickname "Tollywood" is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu-language, in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and is centered in the Hyderabad neighbourhood of Film Nagar.
|#+||Implies that the film is multilingual and the gross collection figure includes the worldwide collection of the other simultaneously filmed version.|
Highest-grossing films by year
|Year||Title||Director||Studio(s)||Worldwide gross (est.)||Source|
|Zindagi||P. C. Barua||New Theatres||₹55 lakh (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$29 million in )||[n 6]|
|Khazanchi||Moti B. Gidwani||Pancholi Art Pictures||₹70 lakh (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$37 million in )||[n 8]|
|Basant||Amiya Chakrabarty||Bombay Talkies||₹80 lakh (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$38 million in )||[n 9]|
|Kismet||Gyan Mukherjee||Bombay Talkies||₹1 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$50 million in )||[n 11]|
|Rattan||M. Sadiq||Gemini Pictures||₹1 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$45 million in )||[n 13]|
|Zeenat||Shaukat Hussain Rizvi||Eastern Pictures||₹70 lakh (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$30 million in )||[n 14]|
|Anmol Ghadi||Mehboob Khan||Mehboob Productions||₹1 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$40 million in )||[n 16]|
|Jugnu||Shaukat Hussain Rizvi||Shaukat Art Productions||₹50 lakh (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$58 million in )||[n 18]|
|Chandralekha||S. S. Vasan||Gemini Studios||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$35 million in )||[n 20]|
|Barsaat||Raj Kapoor||R. K. Films||₹2 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$44 million in )||[n 21]|
|Samadhi||Ramesh Saigal||N/A||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$30 million in )||[n 22]|
|Awaara||Raj Kapoor||R. K. Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$ million in )||[n 24]|
|Aan||Mehboob Khan||Mehboob Productions||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$55 million in )||[n 25]|
|Anarkali||Nandlal Jaswantlal||Filmistan||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$48 million in )||[n 26]|
|Nagin||Nandlal Jaswantlal||Filmistan||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$58 million in )||[n 27]|
|Pather Panchali||Satyajit Ray||Government of West Bengal||₹10 crore (US$1 million)|||
|Shree||Raj Kapoor||R. K. Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$48 million in )||[n 28]|
|Jagte Raho||Sombhu Mitra|
|R. K. Films||USSR: million tickets|||
|Mother India||Mehboob Khan||Mehboob Productions||₹8 crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 30]|
|Madhumati||Bimal Roy||Bimal Roy Productions||₹4 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$75 million in )||[n 31]|
|Char Dil Char Rahen||Khwaja Ahmad Abbas||Naya Sansar||USSR: million tickets|||
|Mughal-e-Azam||K. Asif||Sterling Investment Corporation||₹11 crore (equivalent to ₹2, crore or US$ million in )||[n 29]|
|Ganga Jamna||Nitin Bose||Citizen Films||₹11 crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 32]|
|Bees Saal Baad||Biren Nag||Geetanjali Pictures||₹3 crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$29million in )|||
|Mere Mehboob||H. S. Rawail||Rahul Theatre||₹6 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$99 million in )||[n 33]|
|Sangam||Raj Kapoor||Mehboob Studio||₹8 crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$66million in )|||
|Waqt||Yash Chopra||Yash Raj Films||₹6 crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$45million in )|||
|Phool Aur Patthar||O. P. Ralhan||Ralhan Productions||₹17 crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$million in )|||
|Hamraaz||B. R. Chopra||United Producers||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$80million in )|||
|Ankhen||Ramanand Sagar||Sagar Art International||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$38million in )|||
|Aradhana||Shakti Samanta||United Producers|| India: ₹7 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$39 million in ) |
USSR: million tickets
|Mera Naam Joker||Raj Kapoor||R. K. Films||USSR: million tickets||[n 35]|
|Caravan||Nasir Hussain||Nasir Hussain Films|
|₹ crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 36]|
|Seeta Aur Geeta||Ramesh Sippy||Sippy Films|| India: ₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$26 million in ) |
USSR: million tickets
|Bobby||Raj Kapoor||R. K. Films||₹30 crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 40]|
|Roti Kapda Aur Makaan||Manoj Kumar||Filmistan||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$35million in )|||
|Sholay||Ramesh Sippy||United Producers||₹35 crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 42]|
|Barood||Pramod Chakravorty||Jugnu Enterprises|| India: ₹2 crore (equivalent to ₹67 crore or US$10 million in ) |
USSR: 60 million tickets
|Amar Akbar Anthony||Manmohan Desai||Hirawat Jain & Co.||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$71 million in )||[n 45]|
|Muqaddar Ka Sikandar||Prakash Mehra||Prakash Mehra Productions||₹26 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$ million in )||[n 47]|
|Suhaag||Manmohan Desai||Sharma Cine Associates||₹10 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$44 million in )||[n 49]|
|Qurbani||Feroz Khan||F.K. International||₹12 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$48 million in )||[n 51]|
|Kranti||Manoj Kumar||V.I.P. Films||₹20 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$66 million in )||[n 54]|
|Disco Dancer||Babbar Subhash||B. Subhash Movie Unit||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 58]|
|Coolie||Manmohan Desai||Aasia Films||₹18 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$62million) in )|||
|Jagir||Pramod Chakravorty||Pramod Films||USSR: 38 million tickets|||
|Ram Teri Ganga Maili||Raj Kapoor||R. K. Films||₹19 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$43million) in )||[n 52]|
|Karma||Subhash Ghai||Mukta Arts||₹14 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$32million) in )||[n 52]|
|Hukumat||Anil Sharma||N/A||₹11 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$25million) in )||[n 52]|
|Tezaab||N. Chandra||N/A||₹16 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$37million) in )||[n 52]|
|Maine Pyar Kiya||Sooraj Barjatya||Rajshri Productions||₹28 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$64million) in )||[n 52]|
|Dil||Indra Kumar||Maruti International||₹18 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$41million) in )||[n 52]|
|Saajan||Lawrence D'Souza||Eros Entertainment||₹18 crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$41million) in )||[n 52]|
|Beta||Indra Kumar||Maruti International||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$54million) in )||[n 52]|
|Aankhen||David Dhawan||Chiragdeep International||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$58million) in )||[n 52]|
|Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!||Sooraj Barjatya||Rajshri Productions||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore (US$million) in )||[n 59]|
|Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge||Aditya Chopra||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore (US$million) in )||[n 60]|
|Raja Hindustani||Dharmesh Darshan||Cineyug||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$94million) in )||[n 61]|
|Dil To Pagal Hai||Yash Chopra||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$75million) in )||[n 62]|
|Kuch Kuch Hota Hai||Karan Johar||Dharma Productions||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$million) in )||[n 63]|
|Hum Saath Saath Hain||Sooraj Barjatya||Rajshri Productions||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$73million) in )||[n 64]|
|Mohabbatein||Aditya Chopra||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$71million) in )||[n 65]|
|Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham||Karan Johar||Dharma Productions||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$93million) in )||[n 66]|
|Devdas||Sanjay Leela Bhansali||Red Chillies Entertainment||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$74 million in )||[n 67]|
|Kal Ho Naa Ho||Nikhil Advani||Dharma Productions||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$38million) in )||[n 68]|
|Veer-Zaara||Yash Chopra||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$38million) in )||[n 69]|
|No Entry||Anees Bazmee||SK Film Entertainment||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$27million) in )||[n 70]|
|Dhoom 2||Sanjay Gadhvi||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$55million in )|||
|Om Shanti Om||Farah Khan||Red Chillies Entertainment||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore (US$42million) in )||[n 71]|
|Ghajini||A. R. Murugadoss||Geetha Arts||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$73million in )||[n 72]|
|3 Idiots||Rajkumar Hirani||Vinod Chopra Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$million in )|||
|Enthiran||S. Shankar||Sun Pictures||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$73million in )|||
|Bodyguard||Siddique||Reliance Entertainment||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹crore or US$54million in )|||
|Ek Tha Tiger||Kabir Khan||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$69 million in )|||
|Dhoom 3||Vijay Krishna Acharya||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$ million in )||[n 3]|
|PK||Rajkumar Hirani||Vinod Chopra Films||₹ crore (equivalent to ₹ crore or US$ million in )|||
|Bajrangi Bhaijaan||Kabir Khan||Salman Khan Films|
Kabir Khan Films
|₹ crore (equivalent to ₹1, crore or US$ million in )||[n 1]|
|Dangal||Nitesh Tiwari||Aamir Khan Productions|
UTV Motion Pictures
Walt Disney Studios India
|₹2, crore (US$ million)|||
|Baahubali 2: The Conclusion||S. S. Rajamouli||Arka Media Works||₹1, crore (US$ million)|||
|S. Shankar||Lyca Productions||₹ crore (US$ million)|||
|War||Siddharth Anand||Yash Raj Films||₹ crore (US$67 million)|||
|Tanhaji||Om Raut||Ajay Devgn FFilms|
|₹ crore (US$52 million)|||
|Master||Lokesh Kanagaraj||XB Film Creators||₹ crore (US$40million)|||
Highest-grossing franchises and film series
The Khiladi franchise was the first film franchise to gross over ₹crore, followed by the Krrish film series. Baahubali is the first franchise to collect over ₹1,crore at the box office, and the only franchise where both its films have grossed more than ₹crore worldwide.
- indicates that at least one film in the series is playing in the week commencing 15 October .
- ^ abcBajrangi Bhaijaan worldwide gross – ₹ crore ($ million)
- India – ₹ crore
- Overseas – $76,, (₹ crore)
- First phase (–) – $ million (₹crore)
- Final phase (–) – $45,,–47,, (₹ crore+)
- ^ abSecret Superstar – ₹ crore (US$ million)
- ^ abcdDhoom 3 worldwide gross: ₹ crore (US$ million)
- ^Box office gross values of ₹– crore were reported for Kabali in the first 13 days by several organisations including Financial Express and Indian Express, which were more than double the estimates made by other sources.International Business Times (IBT) and Firstpost criticized these estimates as inflated, explaining the discrepancy as due in part to the addition of "pre-release business" figures, such as music and satellite rights sales of ₹ crore, being factored into the box office sales totals.Firstpost wrote, "More conservative estimates put Kabali’s collections at around Rs crores from worldwide ticket sales." IBT's analysts in August estimated the film's worldwide gross total of its first 13 days at around ₹ crore (US$ million).
Figures given in December by Financial Express indicated an estimated domestic gross of ₹ crore and an overseas gross of ₹ crore, which total ₹ crore. According to International Business Times in October , Kabali's final worldwide gross was around ₹ crore (US$38million).
- ^ Indian rupees per US dollar in ₹ per pound, $ per pound
- ^₹55 lakh (US$ million)[n 5] in (US$29 million or ₹ crore in )
- ^ ab Indian rupees per US dollar in and ₹ per pound, $ per pound
- ^₹70 lakh (US$ million)[n 7] in (US$37 million or ₹ crore in )
- ^₹80 lakh (US$ million)[n 7] in (US$38 million or ₹ crore in )
- ^ Indian rupees per US dollar in 
- ^₹1 crore (US$ million)[n 10] in (US$50 million or ₹ crore
Movies wikipedia bollywood
Indian film industry
This article is about the Hindi film industry. For the entire film culture of India, see Cinema of India. For the tree species, see Bollywood (tree).
Not to be confused with Hollywood.
Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as Bombay cinema, is the IndianHindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Cinema of South India and other Indian film industries, making up Indian cinema—the world's largest by number of feature films produced.
In , Indian cinema produced 1, feature films, with Bollywood as its largest filmmaker, producing Hindi films the same year. Bollywood represents 43 percent of Indian net box-office revenue; Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36 percent, and the remaining regional cinema constituted 21 percent in  Bollywood is one of the largest centres of film production in the world. In ticket sales, Indian cinema (including Bollywood) reportedly sold an estimated billion tickets worldwide, compared to Hollywood's billion tickets sold. Bollywood films tend to use vernacular Hindustani, mutually intelligible by people who self-identify as speaking either Hindi or Urdu, and modern Bollywood movies increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.
The most popular commercial genre in Bollywood since the s has been the masala film, which freely mixes different genres including action, comedy, romance, drama and melodrama along with musical numbers. Masala films generally fall under the musical film genre, of which Indian cinema has been the largest producer since the s when it exceeded the American film industry's total musical output after musical films declined in the West; the first Indian musical talkie was Alam Ara (), several years after the first Hollywood musical talkie The Jazz Singer (). Alongside commercial masala films, a distinctive genre of art films known as parallel cinema has also existed, presenting realistic content and avoidance of musical numbers. In more recent years, the distinction between commercial masala and parallel cinema has been gradually blurring, with an increasing number of mainstream films adopting the conventions which were once strictly associated with parallel cinema.
"Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay (the former name of Mumbai) and "Hollywood", a shorthand reference for the American film industry which is based in Hollywood, California.
The term "Tollywood", for the Tollygunge-based cinema of West Bengal, predated "Bollywood". It was used in a American Cinematographer article by Wilford E. Deming, an American engineer who helped produce the first Indian sound picture.
"Bollywood" was probably invented in Bombay-based film trade journals in the s or s, though the exact inventor varies by account. Film journalist Bevinda Collaco claims she coined the term for the title of her column in Screen magazine. Her column entitled "On the Bollywood Beat" covered studio news and celebrity gossip. Other sources state that lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna was its creator. It's unknown if it was derived from "Hollywood" through "Tollywood", or was inspired directly by "Hollywood".
The term has been criticised by some film journalists and critics, who believe it implies that the industry is a poor cousin of Hollywood.
"Bollywood" has since inspired a long list of Hollywood-inspired nicknames.
Early history (s–s)
In , a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera, Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, The Flower of Persia ().The Wrestlers () by H. S. Bhatavdekar showed a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay.
Dadasaheb Phalke's silent Raja Harishchandra () is the first feature film made in India. By the s, the industry was producing over films per year. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (), was commercially successful. With a great demand for talkies and musicals, Bollywood and the other regional film industries quickly switched to sound films.
Challenges and market expansion (ss)
The s and s were tumultuous times; India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Although most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, a number of filmmakers tackled tough social issues or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their films. Irani made the first Hindi colour film, Kisan Kanya, in The following year, he made a colour version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were cinematic staples.
The decade of the s saw an expansion of the Bollywood's commercial market and its presence in the national consciousness. The year saw the arrival of Indian cinema's first 'blockbuster' offering, the movie Kismet, which grossed in excess of the important barrier of one crore (10 million) rupees, made on a budget of only two lakh ( million) rupees. Kismet tackled contemporary issues, especially those arising from the Indian Independence movement, and went on to become "the longest running hit of Indian cinema", a title it held till the s. Film personalities like Bimal Roy, Sahir Ludhianvi and Prithviraj Kapoor participated in the creation of a national movement against colonial rule in India, while simultaneously leveraging the popular political movement to increase their own visibility and popularity. Themes from the Independence Movement deeply influenced Bollywood directors, screen-play writers, and lyricists, who saw their films in the context of social reform and the problems of the common people.
Although the partition of India, divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, it precipitated the migration of film-making talent from film making centers like Lahore and Calcutta, which bore the brunt of the partition violence. These events further consolidated the Mumbai film industry's position as the preeminent center for film production in India.
Golden Age (late s–s)
The period from the late s to the early s, after India's independence, is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Hindi cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this time. Examples include Pyaasa () and Kaagaz Ke Phool (), directed by Guru Dutt and written by Abrar Alvi; Awaara () and Shree (), directed by Raj Kapoor and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Aan (), directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar. The films explored social themes, primarily dealing with working-class life in India (particularly urban life) in the first two examples. Awaara presented the city as both nightmare and dream, and Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of urban life.
Mehboob Khan's Mother India (), a remake of his earlier Aurat (), was the first Indian film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film; it lost by a single vote.Mother India defined conventional Hindi cinema for decades. It spawned a genre of dacoit films, in turn defined by Gunga Jumna (). Written and produced by Dilip Kumar, Gunga Jumna was a dacoit crime drama about two brothers on opposite sides of the law (a theme which became common in Indian films during the s). Some of the best-known epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at this time, such as K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (). Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers during this period included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt.
The three most popular male Indian actors of the s and s were Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, and Dev Anand, each with a unique acting style. Kapoor adopted Charlie Chaplin's tramp; Anand modeled himself on suave Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant, and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting which predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray, inspired future generations of Indian actors. Much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino, Kumar had a similar influence on Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah, Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui. Veteran actresses such as Suraiya, Nargis, Sumitra Devi, Madhubala, Meena Kumari, Waheeda Rehman, Nutan, Sadhana, Mala Sinha and Vyjayanthimala have had their share of influence on Hindi cinema.
While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the s also saw the emergence of a parallel cinema movement. Although the movement (emphasising social realism) was led by Bengali cinema, it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Early examples of parallel cinema include Dharti Ke Lal (), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal famine of ,;Neecha Nagar () directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (). Their critical acclaim and the latter's commercial success paved the way for Indian neorealism and the Indian New Wave (synonymous with parallel cinema). Internationally acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Shyam Benegal, and Vijaya Mehta.
After the social-realist film Neecha Nagar received the Palme d'Or at the inaugural Cannes Film Festival, Hindi films were frequently in competition for Cannes' top prize during the s and early s and some won major prizes at the festival.Guru Dutt, overlooked during his lifetime, received belated international recognition during the s. Film critics polled by the British magazine Sight & Sound included several of Dutt's films in a list of greatest films, and Time's All-Time Movies lists Pyaasa as one of the greatest films of all time.
During the late s and early s, the industry was dominated by musical romance films with romantic-hero leads.
Classic Bollywood (s–s)
By , Hindi cinema was thematically stagnant and dominated by musical romance films. The arrival of screenwriting duo Salim–Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar) was a paradigm shift, revitalising the industry. They began the genre of gritty, violent, Bombay underworld crime films early in the decade with films such as Zanjeer () and Deewaar (). Salim-Javed reinterpreted the rural themes of Mehboob Khan's Mother India () and Dilip Kumar's Gunga Jumna () in a contemporary urban context, reflecting the socio-economic and socio-political climate of s India and channeling mass discontent, disillusionment and the unprecedented growth of slums with anti-establishment themes and those involving urban poverty, corruption and crime. Their "angry young man", personified by Amitabh Bachchan, reinterpreted Dilip Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna in a contemporary urban context and anguished urban poor.
By the mids, romantic confections had given way to gritty, violent crime films and action films about gangsters (the Bombay underworld) and bandits (dacoits). Salim-Javed's writing and Amitabh Bachchan's acting popularised the trend with films such as Zanjeer and (particularly) Deewaar, a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna which pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan" (Bachchan); according to Danny Boyle, Deewaar was "absolutely key to Indian cinema". In addition to Bachchan, several other actors followed by riding the crest of the trend (which lasted into the early s). Actresses from the era include Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan, Raakhee, Shabana Azmi, Zeenat Aman, Parveen Babi, Rekha, Dimple Kapadia, Smita Patil, Jaya Prada and Padmini Kolhapure.
The name "Bollywood" was coined during the s, when the conventions of commercial Bollywood films were defined. Key to this was the masala film, which combines a number of genres (action, comedy, romance, drama, melodrama, and musical). The masala film was pioneered early in the decade by filmmaker Nasir Hussain, and the Salim-Javed screenwriting duo, pioneering the Bollywood-blockbuster format.Yaadon Ki Baarat (), directed by Hussain and written by Salim-Javed, has been identified as the first masala film and the first quintessentially Bollywood film. Salim-Javed wrote more successful masala films during the s and s. Masala films made Amitabh Bachchan the biggest Bollywood star of the period. A landmark of the genre was Amar Akbar Anthony (), directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan, and Desai continued successfully exploiting the genre.
Both genres (masala and violent-crime films) are represented by the blockbuster Sholay (), written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with spaghetti Westerns, spawning the Dacoit Western (also known as the curry Western) which was popular during the s.
Some Hindi filmmakers, such as Shyam Benegal, Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta, continued to produce realistic parallel cinema throughout the s. Although the art film bent of the Film Finance Corporation was criticised during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation which accused the corporation of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema, the decade saw the rise of commercial cinema with films such as Sholay () which consolidated Amitabh Bachchan's position as a star. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released that year.
By , the Bombay film industry was generating an estimated annual revenue of ₹ crore (₹ 7 billion,$ million), equivalent to $ billion (₹12, crore, ₹ billion) when adjusted for inflation. By , India's annual film output had increased from films produced annually to films annually, making India the world's largest film producer. The most internationally acclaimed Hindi film of the s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (), which won the Camera d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
New Bollywood (s–present)
Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation during the late s with a box-office decline due to increasing violence, a decline in musical quality, and a rise in video piracy. One of the turning points came with such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (), presenting a blend of youthfulness, family entertainment, emotional intelligence and strong melodies, all of which lured audiences back to the big screen. It brought back the template for Bollywood musical romance films which went on to define s Hindi cinema.
Known since the s as "New Bollywood", contemporary Bollywood is linked to economic liberalization in India during the early s. Early in the decade, the pendulum swung back toward family-centered romantic musicals. Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak () was followed by blockbusters such as Maine Pyar Kiya (), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (), Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (), Raja Hindustani (), Dil To Pagal Hai () and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (), introducing a new generation of popular actors, including the three Khans: Aamir Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, and Salman Khan, who have starred in most of the top ten highest-grossing Bollywood films. The Khans and have had successful careers since the late s and early s, and have dominated the Indian box office for three decades. Shah Rukh Khan was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s, and Aamir Khan has been the most successful Indian actor since the mid s. Action and comedy films, starring such actors as Akshay Kumar and Govinda.
The decade marked the entrance of new performers in art and independent films, some of which were commercially successful. The most influential example was Satya (), directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Its critical and commercial success led to the emergence of a genre known as Mumbai noir: urban films reflecting the city's social problems. This led to a resurgence of parallel cinema by the end of the decade. The films featured actors whose performances were often praised by critics.
The s saw increased Bollywood recognition worldwide due to growing (and prospering) NRI and Desi communities overseas. The growth of the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era led the country's film industry to new heights in production values, cinematography and screenwriting as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. Some popular films of the decade were Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai (), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (), Lagaan (), Koi Mil Gaya (), Kal Ho Naa Ho (), Veer-Zaara (), Rang De Basanti (), Lage Raho Munna Bhai (), Dhoom 2 (), Krrish (), and Jab We Met (), among others, showing the rise of new movie stars.
During the s, the industry saw established stars such as making big-budget masala films like Dabangg (), Singham (),Ek Tha Tiger (), Son of Sardaar (), Rowdy Rathore (), Chennai Express (), Kick () and Happy New Year () with much-younger actresses. Although the films were often not praised by critics, they were commercially successful. Some of the films starring Aamir Khan have been credited with redefining and modernising the masala film with a distinct brand of socially conscious cinema.
Most stars from the s continued successful careers into the next decade, and the s saw a new generation of popular actors in different films. Among new conventions, female-centred films such as The Dirty Picture (), Kahaani (), and Queen (), Parched (), Pink () started gaining wide financial success.
Influences on Bollywood
Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences which have shaped Indian popular cinema:
- The branching structures of ancient Indian epics, like the Mahabharata and Ramayana. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots.
- Ancient Sanskrit drama, with its stylised nature and emphasis on spectacle in which music, dance and gesture combine "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience." Matthew Jones of De Montfort University also identifies the Sanskrit concept of rasa, or "the emotions felt by the audience as a result of the actor’s presentation", as crucial to Bollywood films.
- Traditional folk theater, which became popular around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theater. Its regional traditions include the Jatra of Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
- Parsi theatre, which "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft."
- Hollywood, where musicals were popular from the s to the s.
- Western musical television (particularly MTV), which has had an increasing influence since the s. Its pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music may be seen in s Indian films. An early example of this approach was Mani Ratnam's Bombay ().
Sharmistha Gooptu identifies Indo-Persian-Islamic culture as a major influence. During the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performance across northern India and established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry, and Parsi theater. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, and Hindustani became the standard language of early Indian talkies. Films based on "Persianate adventure-romances" led to a popular genre of "Arabian Nights cinema".
Scholars Chaudhuri Diptakirti and Rachel Dwyer and screenwriter Javed Akhtar identify Urdu literature as a major influence on Hindi cinema. Most of the screenwriters and scriptwriters of classic Hindi cinema came from Urdu literary backgrounds, from Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Akhtar ul Iman to Salim–Javed and Rahi Masoom Raza; a handful came from other Indian literary traditions, such as Bengali and Hindi literature. Most of Hindi cinema's classic scriptwriters wrote primarily in Urdu, including Salim-Javed, Gulzar, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Inder Raj Anand, Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza. Urdu poetry and the ghazal tradition strongly influenced filmi (Bollywood lyrics). Javed Akhtar was also greatly influenced by Urdu novels by Pakistani author Ibn-e-Safi, such as the Jasoosi Dunya and Imran series of detective novels; they inspired, for example, famous Bollywood characters such as Gabbar Singh in Sholay () and Mogambo in Mr. India ().
Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on s commercial Bollywood masala films, including New Hollywood, Italian exploitation films, and Hong Kong martial arts cinema. After the success of Bruce Lee films (such as Enter the Dragon) in India,Deewaar () and other Bollywood films incorporated fight scenes inspired by s martial arts films from Hong Kong cinema until the s. Bollywood action scenes emulated Hong Kong rather than Hollywood, emphasising acrobatics and stunts and combining kung fu (as perceived by Indians) with Indian martial arts such as pehlwani.
Influence of Bollywood
Perhaps Bollywood's greatest influence has been on India's national identity, where (with the rest of Indian cinema) it has become part of the "Indian story". In India, Bollywood is often associated with India's national identity. According to economist and Bollywood biographer Meghnad Desai, "Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence".
Scholar Brigitte Schulze has written that Indian films, most notably Mehboob Khan's Mother India (), played a key role in shaping the Republic of India's national identity in the early years after independence from the British Raj; the film conveyed a sense of Indian nationalism to urban and rural citizens alike. Bollywood has long influenced Indian society and culture as the biggest entertainment industry; many of the country's musical, dancing, wedding and fashion trends are Bollywood-inspired. Bollywood fashion trendsetters have included Madhubala in Mughal-e-Azam () and Madhuri Dixit in Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! ().
Bollywood has also had a socio-political impact on Indian society, reflecting Indian politics. In classic s Bollywood films, Bombay underworld crime films written by Salim–Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan such as Zanjeer () and Deewaar () reflected the socio-economic and socio-political realities of contemporary India. They channeled growing popular discontent and disillusionment and state failure to ensure welfare and well-being at a time of inflation, shortages, loss of confidence in public institutions, increasing crime and the unprecedented growth of slums. Salim-Javed and Bachchan's films dealt with urban poverty, corruption and organised crime; they were perceived by audiences as anti-establishment, often with an "angry young man" protagonist presented as a vigilante or anti-hero whose suppressed rage voiced the anguish of the urban poor.
Bollywood has been a significant form of soft power for India, increasing its influence and changing overseas perceptions of India. In Germany, Indian stereotypes included bullock carts, beggars, sacred cows, corrupt politicians, and catastrophes before Bollywood and the IT industry transformed global perceptions of India. According to author Roopa Swaminathan, "Bollywood cinema is one of the strongest global cultural ambassadors of a new India." Its role in expanding India's global influence is comparable to Hollywood's similar role with American influence.
During the s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world and was instrumental role in reviving the American musical film. Baz Luhrmann said that his musical film, Moulin Rouge! (), was inspired by Bollywood musicals; the film incorporated a Bollywood-style dance scene with a song from the film China Gate. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! began a renaissance of Western musical films such as Chicago, Rent, and Dreamgirls.
Indian film composer A. R. Rahman wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams, and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun was staged in London's West End. The Bollywood sports filmLagaan () was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and two other Bollywood films ('s Devdas and 's Rang De Basanti) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language.
Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (), which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, was inspired by Bollywood films and is considered an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema". It was also inspired by Mumbai-underworld crime films, such as Deewaar (), Satya (), Company () and Black Friday ().Deewaar had a Hong Kong remake, The Brothers (), which inspired John Woo's internationally acclaimed breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (); the latter was a template for Hong Kong action cinema's heroic bloodshed genre. "Angry young man" s epics such as Deewaar and Amar Akbar Anthony () also resemble the heroic-bloodshed genre of s Hong Kong action cinema.
The influence of filmi may be seen in popular music worldwide. Technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced a electronic album, Cochin Moon, based on an experimentalfusion of electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music.Truth Hurts' song "Addictive", produced by DJ Quik and Dr. Dre, was lifted[clarification needed] from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" in Jyoti ().The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don () and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (). Both songs were composed by Kalyanji Anandji, sung by Asha Bhosle, and featured the dancer Helen.
The Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. D. Burman compositions sung by Asha Bhosle for their album, You've Stolen My Heart: Songs from R.D. Burman's Bollywood, which was nominated for Best Contemporary World Music Album at the Grammy Awards. Filmi music composed by A. R. Rahman (who received two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by other musicians, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon, the French rap group La Caution and the American artist Ciara. Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora, have also been inspired by Bollywood music.
See also: Muslim social
Bollywood films are primarily musicals, and are expected to have catchy song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. A film's music and song and dance portions are usually produced first and these are often released before the film itself, increasing its audience.
Indian audiences expect value for money, and a good film is generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally "money's worth"). Songs, dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills are combined in a three-hour show (with an intermission). These are called masala films, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas, they are a mixture of action, comedy and romance; most have heroes who can fight off villains single-handedly. Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic, frequently using formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers, angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, political corruption, kidnapping, villains, kind-hearted courtesans, long-lost relatives and siblings, reversals of fortune and serendipity.
Parallel cinema films, in and outside Bollywood, tended to be less popular at the box office. A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries and increased Western influence in India have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood.
According to film critic Lata Khubchandani, "Our earliest films had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures." Although Bollywood plots feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than pre-arranged marriages, traditional Indian culture continues to exist outside the industry and is an element of resistance by some to Western influences. Bollywood plays a major role, however, in Indian fashion. Studies have indicated that some people, unaware that changing fashion in Bollywood films is often influenced by globalisation, consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian.
Casts and crews
See also: List of Indian film actors, List of Indian film actresses, List of Indian film directors, List of Indian film music directors, List of Bollywood actors, List of Indian playback singers, and List of Hindi film families
Bollywood employs people from throughout India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, stage actors and ordinary people come to Mumbai with the hope of becoming a star. As in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed.
Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, although many have tried. There have been exceptions, however, and the hit film Rang De Basanti starred the English Alice Patten. Kisna, Lagaan, and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors, and Australian-born actress Emma Brown Garett has starred in a few Indian films. Bollywood can be insular, and relatives of film-industry figures have an edge in obtaining coveted roles in films or being part of a film crew. However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce, and film-industry scions will falter if they do not succeed at the box office. Stars such as Dilip Kumar, Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, Rajesh Khanna, Anil Kapoor, Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit, Aishwarya Rai and Shah Rukh Khan lacked show-business connections.
Dialogues and lyrics
See also: Bombay Hindi and Tapori (word)
Film scripts (known as dialogues in Indian English) and their song lyrics are often written by different people. Scripts are usually written in an unadorned Hindustani, which would be understood by the largest possible audience. Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial register of Hindustani, mutually intelligible by Hindi and Urdu speakers. Most of the classic scriptwriters of what is known as Hindi cinema, including Salim–Javed, Gulzar, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Inder Raj Anand, Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza, primarily wrote in Urdu. Salim-Javed wrote in Urdu script, which was then transcribed by an assistant into Devanagari script so Hindi readers could read the Urdu dialogues. During the s, the Urdu writers and screenwriters Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu" but were categorised as Hindi films by the government.Urdu poetry has strongly influenced Bollywood songs, whose lyrics also draw from the ghazal tradition (filmi-ghazal). According to Javed Akhtar in , Urdu diction dominates Bollywood film dialogue and lyrics, with about 90% of them written in Urdu script, including his own works as well as those of Majrooh Sultanpuri and Anand Bakshi.
Some films have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or archaic Urdu in medievalhistorical films. In her book, The Cinematic ImagiNation, Jyotika Virdi wrote about the presence of Urdu in Hindi films: "Urdu is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom." Virdi notes that although Urdu was widely used in classic Hindi cinema decades after partition because it was widely taught in pre-partition India, its use has declined in modern Hindi cinema: "The extent of Urdu used in commercial Hindi cinema has not been stable the decline of Urdu is mirrored in Hindi films It is true that many Urdu words have survived and have become part of Hindi cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes For the most part, popular Hindi cinema has forsaken the florid Urdu that was part of its extravagance and retained a 'residual' Urdu". However, Urdu continues to be used in Bollywood films for dialogues and (particularly) songs.
Contemporary mainstream films also use English; according to the article "Bollywood Audiences Editorial", "English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu." Some film scripts are first written in Latin script. Characters may shift from one language to the other to evoke a particular atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). The blend of Hindi, Urdu and English sometimes heard in modern Bollywood films, known as Hinglish, has become increasingly common.
Cinematic language (in dialogues or lyrics) is often melodramatic, invoking God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics (especially in older films) frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with a number of Persian loanwords. Another source for love lyrics in films such as Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje and Lagaan is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the loves of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis.
Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, and the lyricist and composer may be seen as a team. This phenomenon has been compared to the pairs of American composers and songwriters who created classic Broadway musicals.
Sound in early Bollywood films was usually not recorded on location (sync sound). It was usually created (or re-created) in the studio, with the actors speaking their lines in the studio and sound effects added later; this created synchronisation problems. Commercial Indian films are known for their lack of ambient sound, and the Arriflex 3 camera necessitated dubbing. Lagaan () was filmed with sync sound, and several Bollywood films have recorded on-location sound since then.
Female makeup artists
In , the Bollywood Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association (CCMAA) ruled that female makeup artists were barred from membership. The Supreme Court of India ruled in that the ban violated Indian constitutional guarantees under Article 14 (right to equality), 19(1)(g) (freedom to work) and Article 21 (right to liberty). According to the court, the ban had no "rationale nexus" to the cause sought to be achieved and was "unacceptable, impermissible and inconsistent" with the constitutional rights guaranteed to India's citizens. The court also found illegal the rule which mandated that for any artist to work in the industry, they must have lived for five years in the state where they intend to work. In , it was announced that Charu Khurana was the first woman registered by the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association.
Song and dance
See also: Music of Bollywood, Filmi-ghazal, Filmi qawwali, Hindi dance music, and List of singing actors in Indian cinema
Bollywood film music is called filmi (from the Hindi "of films"). Bollywood songs were introduced with Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara () song, "De De Khuda Ke Naam pay pyaare". Bollywood songs are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip syncing the words to the song on-screen (often while dancing). Although most actors are good dancers, few are also singers; a notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films during the s while having a rewarding career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were known as singers and actors, and some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves.
Songs can make and break a film, determining whether it will be a flop or a hit: "Few films without successful musical tracks, and even fewer without any songs and dances, succeed". Globalization has changed Bollywood music, with lyrics an increasing mix of Hindi and English. Global trends such as salsa, pop and hip hop have influenced the music heard in Bollywood films.
Playback singers are featured in the opening credits, and have fans who will see an otherwise-lackluster film to hear their favourites. Notable Bollywood singers are Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Sadhana Sargam, Alka Yagnik and Shreya Goshal (female), and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam (male). Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi have been considered the finest singers of Bollywood songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar (who has recorded thousands of songs for Indian films in her six-decade career). Composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Remixing of film songs with modern rhythms is common, and producers may release remixed versions of some of their films' songs with the films' soundtrack albums.
Dancing in Bollywood films, especially older films, is modeled on Indian dance: classical dance, dances of north-Indian courtesans (tawaif) or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance blends with Western dance styles as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals; Western pop and classical-dance numbers are commonly seen side-by-side in the same film. The hero (or heroine) often performs with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films contain unrealistically-quick shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in natural surroundings or architecturally-grand settings.
Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the film. A song may be worked into the plot, so a character has a reason to sing. It may externalise a character's thoughts, or presage an event in the film (such as two characters falling in love). The songs are often referred to as a "dream sequence", with things happening which would not normally happen in the real world. Song and dance scenes were often filmed in Kashmir but, due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the s, they have been shot in western Europe (particularly Switzerland and Austria).
Contemporary Bollywood dancers include Madhuri Dixit, Hrithik Roshan, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Sridevi, Meenakshi Seshadri, Malaika Arora Khan, Shahid Kapoor, Katrina Kaif and Tiger Shroff. Older dancers include Helen (known for her cabaret numbers), Madhubala, Vyjanthimala, Padmini, Hema Malini, Mumtaz, Cuckoo Moray,Parveen Babi, Waheeda Rahman,Meena Kumari, and Shammi Kapoor.
Bollywood producers have been releasing a film's soundtrack (as tapes or CDs) before the film's release, hoping that the music will attract audiences; a soundtrack is often more popular than its film. Some producers also release music videos, usually (but not always) with a song from the film.
Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to ₹ 1 billion (about US$20million). The science-fiction film Ra.One was made on a budget of ₹ billion (about $27 million), making it the most expensive Bollywood film of all time.Sets, costumes, special effects and cinematography were less than world-class, with some notable exceptions, until the mid-to-late s. As Western films and television are more widely distributed in India, there is increased pressure for Bollywood films to reach the same production levels (particularly in action and special effects). Recent Bollywood films, like Krrish (), have employed international technicians such as Hong Kong-based action choreographer Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility of professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, have seen an increase in action and science-fiction films.
Since overseas scenes are attractive at the box office, Mumbai film crews are filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe and elsewhere. Indian producers have also obtained funding for big-budget films shot in India, such as Lagaan and Devdas.
Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Although Indian banks and financial institutions had been forbidden from lending to film studios, the ban has been lifted. Finances are not regulated; some funding comes from illegitimate sources such as the Mumbai underworld, which is known to influence several prominent film personalities. Mumbai organised-crime hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan, a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan, in January In , the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the film was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld.
Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before they are released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is an established small-scale industry in parts of south and southeast Asia. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $ million annually from unlicensed home videos and DVDs. In addition to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst portions of the Indian diaspora. Bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Pakistani government has banned their sale, distribution and telecast. Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by small cable-TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores, run by members of the Indian diaspora in the US and the UK, regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance; consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to industry losses.
Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now, fewer do. Most Bollywood producers make money, however, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue (including the sale of ancillary rights). There are increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly being noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. In , Bollywood sold billion tickets and had a total revenue (including theatre tickets, DVDs and television) of $ billion; Hollywood films sold billion tickets, and had a total revenue of $51 billion.
A number of Indian artists hand-painted movie billboards and posters. M. F. Husain painted film posters early in his career; human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Most of the large, ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are now created with computer-printed vinyl. Old hand-painted posters, once considered ephemera, are collectible folk art.
Releasing film music, or music videos, before a film's release may be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help attract audiences. Bollywood publicists use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most bigger-budget films have a websites on which audiences can view trailers, stills and information on the story, cast, and crew. Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. Product placement, used in Hollywood, is also common in Bollywood.
See also: Indian cinema and Switzerland
Bollywood's increasing use of international settings such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Mexico, Brazil and Singapore does not necessarily represent the people and cultures of those locales. Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianised by adding Bollywood actors and Hindi speaking extras to them. While immersing in Bollywood films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world.
According to Shakuntala Rao, "Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity"; "Indianness" (cultural identity) poses a problem with Bollywood's popularity among varied diaspora audiences, but gives its domestic audience a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups.
The Filmfare Awards are some of the most prominent awards given to Hindi films in India. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare began the awards in (recognising the best films of ), and they were originally known as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modeled on the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' poll-based merit format, individuals may vote in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in 
The National Film Awards were also introduced in The Indian government has sponsored the awards, given by its Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF), since The DFF screens Bollywood films, films from the other regional movie industries, and independent/art films. The awards are made at an annual ceremony presided over by the president of India. Unlike the Filmfare Awards, which are chosen by the public and a committee of experts, the National Film Awards are decided by a government panel.
Other awards ceremonies for Hindi films in India are the Screen Awards (begun in ) and the Stardust Awards, which began in The International Indian Film Academy Awards (begun in ) and the Zee Cine Awards, begun in , are held abroad in a different country each year.
See also: List of highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets and List of highest-grossing Indian films
In addition to their popularity among the Indian diaspora from Nigeria and Senegal to Egypt and Russia, generations of non-Indians have grown up with Bollywood. Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions made inroads into the Soviet Union, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and China. Bollywood entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers during the late 20th century, and Western actors now seek roles in Bollywood films.
Bollywood films are also popular in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where Hindustani is widely understood. Many Pakistanis understand Hindi, due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu. Although Pakistan banned the import of Bollywood films in , trade in unlicensed DVDs and illegal cable broadcasts ensured their continued popularity. Exceptions to the ban were made for a few films, such as the colorized re-release of Mughal-e-Azam and Taj Mahal in Early in , the Pakistani government permitted the import of 16 films. More easing followed in and Although it is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry, it is embraced by cinema owners who are making a profit after years of low receipts. The most popular actors in Pakistan are the three Khans of Bollywood: Salman, Shah Rukh, and Aamir. The most popular actress is Madhuri Dixit; at India-Pakistan cricket matches during the s, Pakistani fans chanted "Madhuri dedo, Kashmir lelo!" ("Give Madhuri, take Kashmir!") Bollywood films in Nepal earn more than Nepali films, and Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shah Rukh Khan are popular in the country.
The films are also popular in Afghanistan due to its proximity to the Indian subcontinent and their cultural similarities, particularly in music. Popular actors include Shah Rukh Khan, Ajay Devgan, Sunny Deol, Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta, and Madhuri Dixit. A number of Bollywood films were filmed in Afghanistan and some dealt with the country, including Dharmatma, Kabul Express, Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban.
Bollywood films are popular in Southeast Asia, particularly in maritime Southeast Asia. The three Khans are very popular in the Malay world, including Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The films are also fairly popular in Thailand.
India has cultural ties with Indonesia, and Bollywood films were introduced to the country at the end of World War II in The "angry young man" films of Amitabh Bachchan and Salim–Javed were popular during the s and s before Bollywood's popularity began gradually declining in the s and s. It experienced an Indonesian revival with the release of Shah Rukh Khan's Kuch Kuch Hota Hai () in , which was a bigger box-office success in the country than Titanic (). Bollywood has had a strong presence in Indonesia since then, particularly Shah Rukh Khan films such as Mohabbatein (), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (), Kal Ho Naa Ho, Chalte Chalte and KoiMil Gaya (all ), and Veer-Zaara ().
Some Bollywood films have been widely appreciated in China, Japan, and South Korea. Several Hindi films have been commercially successful in Japan, including Mehboob Khan's Aan (, starring Dilip Kumar) and Aziz Mirza's Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman (, starring Shah Rukh Khan). The latter sparked a two-year boom in Indian films after its release, with Dil Se.. () a beneficiary of the boom. The highest-grossing Hindi film in Japan is 3 Idiots (), starring Aamir Khan, which received a Japanese Academy Award nomination. The film was also a critical and commercial success in South Korea.
Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani, Awaara, and Do Bigha Zamin were successful in China during the s and s, and remain popular with their original audience. Few Indian films were commercially successful in the country during the s and s, among them Tahir Hussain's Caravan, Noorie and Disco Dancer. Indian film stars popular in China included Raj Kapoor, Nargis, and Mithun Chakraborty. Hindi films declined significantly in popularity in China during the s. Films by Aamir Khan have recently been successful, and Lagaan was the first Indian film with a nationwide Chinese release in Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan (particularly its soundtrack), and hired its composer A. R. Rahman to score his Warriors of Heaven and Earth ().
When 3 Idiots was released in China, China was the world's 15th-largest film market (partly due to its widespread pirate DVD distribution at the time). The pirate market introduced the film to Chinese audiences, however, and it became a cult hit. According to the Douban film-review site, 3 Idiots is China's 12th-most-popular film of all time; only one domestic Chinese film (Farewell My Concubine) ranks higher, and Aamir Khan acquired a large Chinese fan base as a result. After 3 Idiots, several of Khan's other films (including 's Taare Zameen Par and 's Ghajini) also developed cult followings. China became the world's second-largest film market (after the United States) by , paving the way for Khan's box-office success with Dhoom 3 (), PK (), and Dangal (). The latter is the 16th-highest-grossing film in China, the fifth-highest-grossing non-English language film worldwide, and the highest-grossing non-English foreign film in any market. Several Khan films, including Taare Zameen Par, 3 Idiots, and Dangal, are highly rated on Douban. His next film, Secret Superstar (, starring Zaira Wasim), broke Dangal's record for the highest-grossing opening weekend by an Indian film and cemented Khan's status as "a king of the Chinese box office";Secret Superstar was China's highest-grossing foreign film of to date. Khan has become a household name in China, with his success described as a form of Indian soft power improving China–India relations despite political tensions. With Bollywood competing with Hollywood in the Chinese market, the success of Khan's films has driven up the price for Chinese distributors of Indian film imports.Salman Khan's Bajrangi Bhaijaan and Irrfan Khan's Hindi Medium were also Chinese hits in early 
Although Bollywood is less successful on some Pacific islands such as New Guinea, it ranks second to Hollywood in Fiji (with its large Indian minority), Australia and New Zealand. Australia also has a large South Asian diaspora, and Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. Since , the country has been a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films. Indian filmmakers, attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, initially used the country as a setting for song-and-dance scenes; however, Australian locations now figure in Bollywood film plots. Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate Australian culture. Yash Raj Films' Salaam Namaste (), the first Indian film shot entirely in Australia, was the most successful Bollywood film of in that country. It was followed by the box-office successes Heyy Babyy, () Chak De! India (), and Singh Is Kinng (). Prime Minister John Howard said during a visit to India after the release of Salaam Namaste that he wanted to encourage Indian filmmaking in Australia to increase tourism, and he appointed Steve Waugh as tourism ambassador to India.[failed verification] Australian actress Tania Zaetta, who appeared in Salaam Namaste and several other Bollywood films, was eager to expand her career in Bollywood.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Bollywood films are popular in the former Soviet Union (Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia), and have been dubbed into Russian. Indian films were more popular in the Soviet Union than Hollywood films and, sometimes, domestic Soviet films. The first Indian film released in the Soviet Union was Dharti Ke Lal (), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal famine of , in  Three hundred Indian films were released in the Soviet Union after that; most were Bollywood films with higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions. Fifty Indian films had over 20 million viewers, compared to 41 Hollywood films. Some, such as Awaara () and Disco Dancer (), had more than 60 million viewers and established actors Raj Kapoor, Nargis,Rishi Kapoor and Mithun Chakraborty in the country.
According to diplomat Ashok Sharma, who served in the Commonwealth of Independent States,
The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western cinema centers were banned in the Soviet Union. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.
After the collapse of the Soviet film-distribution system, Hollywood filled the void in the Russian film market and Bollywood's market share shrank. A Russia Today report noted a renewed interest in Bollywood by young Russians.
In Poland, Shah Rukh Khan has a large following. He was introduced to Polish audiences with the release of Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham () and his other films, including Dil Se.. (), Main Hoon Na () and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (), became hits in the country. Bollywood films are often covered in Gazeta Wyborcza, formerly Poland's largest newspaper.
The upcoming movie Squad, is the first Indian film to be shot in Belarus. A majority of the film was shot at Belarusfilm studios, in Minsk.
Middle East and North Africa
Hindi films have become popular in Arab countries, and imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic when they are released. Bollywood has progressed in Israel since the early s, with channels dedicated to Indian films on cable television;MBC Bollywood and Zee Aflam show Hindi movies and serials.
In Egypt, Bollywood films were popular during the s and s. In , however, they were restricted to a handful of films by the Egyptian government.Amitabh Bachchan has remained popular in the country and Indian tourists visiting Egypt are asked, "Do you know Amitabh Bachchan?"
Bollywood movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas, and Bollywood is becoming popular in Turkey; Barfi! was the first Hindi film to have a wide theatrical release in that country. Bollywood also has viewers in Central Asia (particularly Uzbekistan and Tajikistan).
Bollywood films are not influential in most of South America, although its culture and dance is recognised. Due to significant South Asian diaspora communities in Suriname and Guyana, however, Hindi-language movies are popular. In , Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro. In January , it was announced that UTV Motion Pictures would begin releasing films in Peru with Guzaarish.
Hindi films were originally distributed to some parts of Africa by Lebanese businessmen, and Mother India () continued to be screened in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have influenced Hausa clothing, songs have been covered by Hausa singers, and stories have influenced Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Nigeria's Northern Region, and posters of Indian films hang on the walls of tailoring shops and mechanics' garages. Unlike Europe and North America, where Indian films cater to the expatriate marke, Bollywood films became popular in West Africa despite the lack of a significant Indian audience. One possible explanation is cultural similarity: the wearing of turbans, animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, and traditional wedding celebrations. Within Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women; Hollywood movies were seen as having "no shame". In Indian movies, women are modestly dressed; men and women rarely kiss and there is no nudity, so the films are said to "have culture" which Hollywood lacks. The latter "don't base themselves on the problems of the people"; Indian films are based on socialist values and the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. Indian movies permitted a new youth culture without "becoming Western." The first Indian film shot in Mauritius was Souten, starring Rajesh Khanna, in 
In South Africa, film imports from India were watched by black and Indian audiences. Several Bollywood figures have travelled to Africa for films and off-camera projects. Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav () was filmed in South Africa.Dil Jo Bhi Kahey () was also filmed almost entirely in Mauritius, which has a large ethnic-Indian population.
Bollywood, however, seems to be diminishing in popularity in Africa. New Bollywood films are more sexually explicit and violent. Nigerian viewers observed that older films (from the s and s) had more culture and were less Westernised. The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced. The emergence of Nollywood (West Africa's film industry) has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films, as sexualised Indian films became more like American films.
Kishore Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan have been popular in Egypt and Somalia. In Ethiopia, Bollywood movies are shown with Hollywood productions in town square theatres such as the Cinema Ethiopia in Addis Ababa. Less-commercial Bollywood films are also screened elsewhere in North Africa.
Western Europe and North America
The first Indian film to be released in the Western world and receive mainstream attention was Aan (), directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar and Nimmi. It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, and France.Aan received significant praise from British critics, and The Times compared it favourably to Hollywood productions. Mehboob Khan's later Academy Award-nominated Mother India () was a success in overseas markets, including Europe, Russia, the Eastern Bloc, French territories, and Latin America.
Many Bollywood films have been commercially successful in the United Kingdom. The most successful Indian actor at the British box office has been Shah Rukh Khan, whose popularity in British Asian communities played a key role in introducing Bollywood to the UK with films such as Darr (),Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (), and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai ().Dil Se () was the first Indian film to enter the UK top ten. A number of Indian films, such as Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (), have been set in London.
Bollywood is also appreciated in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia. Bollywood films are dubbed in German and shown regularly on the German television channel RTL II. Germany is the second-largest European market for Indian films, after the United Kingdom. The most recognised Indian actor in Germany is Shah Rukh Khan, who has had box-office success in the country with films such as Don 2 () and Om Shanti Om (). He has a large German fan base, particularly in Berlin (where the tabloid Die Tageszeitung compared his popularity to that of the pope).
Bollywood has experienced revenue growth in Canada and the United States, particularly in the South Asian communities of large cities such as Toronto, Chicago, and New York City.Yash Raj Films, one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September that Bollywood films in the United States earned about $ million per year in theatre screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks; Indian films earn more money in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country. Since the mids, a number of Indian films have been largely (or entirely) shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver or Toronto. Films such as The Guru () and Marigold: An Adventure in India () attempted to popularise Bollywood for Hollywood.
Pressured by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to plagiarise. Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films) without acknowledging the source.
Before the s, plagiarism occurred with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India, and few actors or directors saw an official contract. The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (except in the Soviet states), who would be unaware that their material had been copied. Audiences may not have been aware of plagiarism, since many in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. Although copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient, Bollywood and other film industries are more aware of each other and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign films and music. Organisations such as the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between filmmakers and industry professionals in India and the European Union.
A commonly-reported justification for plagiarism in Bollywood is that cautious producers want to remake popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Although screenwriters generally produce original scripts, many are rejected due to uncertainty about whether a film will be successful. Poorly-paid screenwriters have also been criticised for a lack of creativity. Some filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation, with which Western (particularly American) culture is embedding itself into Indian culture.Vikram Bhatt, director of Raaz (a remake of What Lies Beneath) and Kasoor (a remake of Jagged Edge), has spoken about the influence of American culture and Bollywood's desire to produce box-office hits based along the same lines: "Financially, I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude. The American way of life is creeping into our culture." According to Mahesh Bhatt, "If you hide the source, you're a genius. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere".
Although very few cases of film-copyright violations have been taken to court because of a slow legal process, the makers of Partner () and Zinda () were targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films: Hitch and Oldboy. The American studio 20th Century Fox brought Mumbai-based B. R. Films to court over the latter's forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai, which Fox alleged was an illegal remake of My Cousin Vinny. B. R. Films eventually settled out of court for about $,, paving the way for its film's release. Some studios comply with copyright law; in , Orion Pictures secured the rights to remake Hollywood's Wedding Crashers.
The Pakistani Qawwali musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan had a big impact on Bollywood music, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the s. However, there were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs. Several popular examples include Viju Shah's hit song "Tu Cheez Badi Hai Mast Mast" in Mohra () being plagiarised from Khan's popular Qawwali song "Dam Mast Qalandar", "Mera Piya Ghar Aya" used in Yaarana (), and "Sanoo Ek Pal Chain Na Aaye" in Judaai (). Despite the significant number of hit Bollywood songs plagiarised from his music, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was reportedly tolerant towards the plagiarism. One of the Bollywood music directors who frequently plagiarised him, Anu Malik, claimed that he loved Khan's music and was actually showing admiration by using his tunes.
Hindi Diwas: How love for language and a Bollywood movie helped carpenter become Wikipedia editor
A boy who had quit school in class 10 to support his family by working as a carpenter became a Wikipedia Editor, thanks to his love for Hindu and Bollywood movies. Humans of Bombay, which catalogues stories of humanity and journey of individuals, shared an inspiring story of that person on the occasion of Hindi Diwas.
Hindi was the favourite subject of Raju Jangid, the carpenter-turned-Wikipedia editor who wanted to pursue a career in writing. In his own words, Jangid worked till 9pm every day and earned ₹7, a month to support his family but the thought of working as a carpenter for the rest of his life made him sad.
Once, Jangid watched a Bollywood movie and wanted to read about it afterwards. He took his sister-in-law’s phone and ended up finding Wikipedia. Everytime he searched for other topics or people, Google threw a Wikipedia page most of the time. But Jangid couldn’t read English and wondered why the online encyclopedia isn’t available in Hindi when a majority of Indians, according to him, speak the language.
“There wasn’t a page about my village either. That’s when I thought, ‘Mujhe likhna chahiye!’ (I should write) I wrote about my village and with every story, my reach increased to those who were more comfortable with Hindi! I also began editing Wiki pages and made them more resourceful. To see my words published online made me want to write more!” Humans of Bombay quoted Jangid as saying.
Also Read: Hindi Diwas: Lyricists talk about the evolution of Hindi in Bollywood music
Gradually, the boy from Rajasthan started writing on different topics in Hindi, including history and cricket, that helped him educate himself. As Jangid’s monthly income increased, he used to save some amount to resume his high school education. He continued to write after passing board exams and made friends with other online editors.
“When Wikipedia learnt about my challenges back home, they provided me with my own laptop and a free internet connection! They told me, ‘Thank you for keeping Hindi alive and inspiring other Hindi writers too’,” he said, adding that Wikipedia also paid for his graduation studies.
He finally decided to quit carpentry and got a job as a writer in Jangid has now a steady income and has made at least 57, edits on Wikipedia.
“And now whenever I mentor writers to contribute their work in Hindi, I always say, ‘If one’s mother tongue is forgotten, one’s value will also be forgotten’,” he added.
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List of Bollywood films of
Lyrics: Bharat Vyas
Lyrics: Bharat Vyas