Mexican coins images

Mexican coins images DEFAULT

20-peso coins commemorating the 700th anniversary of the lunar foundation of the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the 500th anniversary of historical memory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, and the bicentennial of Mexico’s Independence

Common features

Design features

TypeC1
Diameter30 mm
ShapeDodecagon (12-sided)
Weight12.67 grams
Edge

Interrupted milled

Obverse

In the center field, the national shield with the inscription "ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS" (UNITED MEXICAN STATES) along the top of the coin.

Composition

1. Center of the coin: copper-nickel-zinc alloy.

  • Content: 65% (sixty five percent) copper; 10% (ten percent) nickel; and 25% (twenty-five percent) zinc.
  • Weight: 5.51 grams.

2. Peripheral ring of the coin: bronze-aluminum alloy.

  • Content: 92% (ninety two percent) copper; 6% (six percent) aluminum; and 2% (two percent) nickel.
  • Weight: 7.16 grams.
In circulation as of September 27, 2021.

700th anniversary of the lunar foundation of the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan

Reverse

The eagle from the “Teocalli de la Guerra Sagrada” (Teocalli of the Sacred War) appears in the centerfield of the coin, with the microtext "TEOCALLI" above the eagle. On the right-hand side of the coin, the glyph of the moon appears as a latent image. The upper edge includes the legend “700 AÑOS DE LA FUNDACIÓN LUNAR DE LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO-TENOCHTITLAN” (700 YEARS OF THE LUNAR FOUNDATION OF THE CITY OF MEXICO-TENOCHTITLAN). The denomination "$20" appears on the exergue. To the right of the exergue there is the year "2021" and, to the left of the exergue,  the Mexican Mint mark "M°".

500th anniversary of historical memory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan

Reverse

The Metropolitan Cathedral, the Templo Mayor and the denomination "$20" appear forming a reflection. The Templo Mayor appears as a latent image along with the microtext and the legend “FUSIÓN CULTURAL” (CULTURAL FUSION). The years "2021" and "1521" appear to the right of the corresponding denomination "$20". The legend ”500 AÑOS DE MEMORIA HISTÓRICA DE MEXICO-TENOCHTITLAN” (500 YEARS OF HISTORICAL MEMORY OF MEXICO-TENOCHTITLAN) and the Mexican Mint mark "M°" appear on the edge.

Reverse of the 20-peso commemorating the 500th anniversary of historical memory of Mexico-Tenochtitlan

Templo Mayor upwards

Cathedral upwards

Bicentennial of Mexico's Independence

Reverse

In the center field of the coin, the portraits (in profile) of Miguel Hidalgo, Jose Maria Morelos, and Vicente Guerrero appear to the left. In the upper part, the Angel of the Column of Independence appears as a latent image and, to the left, the microtext reads "LIBERTAD" (FREEDOM). Surrounding the upper edge, the legend reads "BICENTENARIO DE LA INDEPENDENCIA NACIONAL" (BICENTENNIAL OF MEXICO’S WAR OF INDEPENDENCE). The denomination "$20" appears on the exergue. The years "1821" and "2021" appear on the left- and right-hand side of the exergue, respectively. The mark of the Mexican Mint "M°" appears on the left side of the coin.

Background information

Other designs valid for transactions

Sours: https://www.banxico.org.mx/banknotes-and-coins/20-peso-current-coin-belong.html

Mexican peso

Currency of Mexico

Mexican peso
CodeMXN
Number484
Exponent2
Subunit
 1/100centavo
Symbol$ , MX$, or Mex$
 centavo¢
Banknotes
 Freq. used$20, $50, $100, $200, $500
 Rarely used$1,000
Coins
 Freq. used$1, $2, $5, $10
 Rarely used10¢, 20¢, 50¢, $20, $50, $100
User(s) Mexico
Central bankBank of Mexico
 Websitewww.banxico.org.mx
PrinterBank of Mexico
 Websitewww.banxico.org.mx
MintCasa de Moneda de México
 Websitewww.cmm.gob.mx
Inflation3.95% (July 2019)
 SourceBanco de Mexico, July 2019

The Mexican peso (symbol: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a common origin in the 15th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$".[1] The Mexican peso is the 15th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded currency from the Americas (after the United States dollar and Canadian dollar), and the most traded currency from Latin America.[2]

The current ISO 4217 code for the peso is MXN; prior to the 1993 revaluation, the code MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, represented by "¢". As of 26 September 2021[update], the peso's exchange rate was $23.51 per euro and $20.06 per U.S. dollar.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The name was first used in reference to pesos oro (gold weights) or pesos plata (silver weights). The Spanish word peso means "weight". Compare the British pound sterling.

Other countries that use pesos are: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, the Philippines, and Uruguay.[4]

History[edit]

Real[edit]

See also: Spanish dollar, Spanish colonial real, Mexican real, and Spanish escudo

Silver peso or 8 reales of "cap and ray" design used for East Asian trade, 1840

The currency system in use in Spanish America from the 16th to 19th centuries consisted of silver reales, weight 3.433 grams and fineness 67/72 = 93.1%, as well as gold escudos, weight 3.383 g and fineness 11/12 = 91.7%. By the 19th century the silver real weighed 3.383 g, 65/72 = 90.3% fine, while the gold escudo's fineness was reduced to 21 karats or 87.5% fine.

15-16 silver reales were worth a gold escudo, and eight reales were widely called pesos in Spanish America and dollars in England and its American colonies. These pesos or dollars were minted from the rich silver mine outputs of modern-day Mexico and Bolivia and exported in large quantities to Europe and Asia. These pesos served as a global silver standardreserve currency until the start of the 20th century, and became the model for the various pesos of Spanish America as well as (among others) the United States dollar, Chinese yuan and the Japanese yen.[5] Mexican silver pesos of original cap-and-ray design were legal tender in the United States until 1857 and in China until 1935.

First peso[edit]

While the United States divided their dollar into 100 cents early on from 1793, post-independence Mexico retained the peso of 8 reales until 1863 when the peso was divided instead into 100 centavos. During the reign of Emperor Maximilian 1-centavo coins were minted in 1864 while coins denominated "one peso" (rather than eight reales) were minted in 1866. Mexican coins have henceforth been denominated in pesos and centavos except for the silver peso itself, which reverted to its previous design and denomination "8R" (eight reales) due to its widespread familiarity in China.

Until 1905 the silver peso contained 27.07 grams of 90.3% fine silver (24.44 g fine) while the gold peso or 1/2 escudo contained 1.6915 grams of 87.5% fine gold (1.48 g fine). In 1905 the peso was solely defined as 0.75 g fine gold, or a reduction of 49.3%.

From 1918 onward the weight and fineness of all the silver coins declined, until 1977, when the last silver 100-peso coins were minted.

New peso[edit]

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Mexican peso remained one of the more stable currencies in Latin America, since the economy did not experience periods of hyperinflation common to other countries in the region. However, after the oil crisis of the late 1970s, Mexico defaulted on its external debt in 1982, and as a result the country suffered a severe case of capital flight, followed by several years of inflation and devaluation, until a government economic strategy called the "Stability and Economic Growth Pact" (Pacto de estabilidad y crecimiento económico, PECE) was adopted under PresidentCarlos Salinas.

On January 1, 1993, the Bank of Mexico introduced a new currency, the nuevo peso ("new peso", or MXN), written "N$" followed by the numerical amount.[6] One new peso, or N$1.00, was equal to 1000 of the obsolete MXP pesos.[6]

The transition was done both by having the people trade in their old notes and by removing the old notes from circulation at the banks, over a period of three years from January 1, 1993, to January 1, 1996. At that time, the word nuevo was removed from all new currency being printed, and the nuevo notes were retired from circulation, thus returning the currency and the notes to be denominated just "peso" again.

Confusion was avoided by making the nuevo peso currency almost identical to the old "peso". Both of them circulated at the same time, while all currency that only said "peso" was removed from circulation. The Bank of Mexico then issued new currency with new graphics, also under the "nuevo peso". These were followed in due course by the current, almost identical, "peso" currency without the word nuevo.

On January 1, 1996, the modifier nuevo was dropped from the name, and new coins and banknotes – identical in every respect to the 1993 issue, with the exception of the now absent word "nuevo" – were put into circulation. The ISO 4217 code, however, remained unchanged as MXN.

Thanks to the stability of the Mexican economy and the growth in foreign investment, the Mexican peso is now among the 15 most traded currency units.

Coins[edit]

Real[edit]

Coins issued from the 16th to 19th centuries under the Spanish American system of reales and escudos included

  • in gold: 1⁄2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos, with 1 escudo ~ 2 pesos or 16 reales.
  • in silver: 1⁄2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 reales, with 1 peso = 8 reales.

Additionally, Mexico issued copper coins denominated in tlacos or 1⁄8th real. Post-independence silver coins were of the cap and ray design showing a radiant Phrygian cap marked "Libertad" (liberty), which became familiar to East Asian traders. This design ended in 1872 with the minting of "centavo" coins except for the silver peso itself, which retained the cap-and-ray design and the denomination "8R" (eight reales) from 1873-1897, as newly-designed "one peso" coins of 1866-1873 were rejected or discounted by Chinese traders versus the original coin.

Peso, 19th century[edit]

100 pesos coin of the old Mexican peso, issued in 1988.

The first coins denominated in pesos and centavos were 1 centavo pieces minted in 1863. Emperor Maximilian, ruler of the Second Mexican Empire from 1864 to 1867,[7] minted the first coins with the legend "peso" on them. His portrait was on the obverse, with the legend "Maximiliano Emperador;" the reverse shows the imperial arms and the legends "Imperio Mexicano" and "1 Peso" and the date. They were struck from 1866 to 1867. A limited-edition twenty-peso coin was struck, during 1866 only, comprising 87.5 percent gold and also featuring Maximilian on one side and the coat of arms on the other.[8]

The New Mexican republic also began minting coins denominated in centavos and pesos but had to continue striking the 8-reales in the old design until 1897. In addition to copper 1 centavo coins, silver (.903 fineness) coins of 5, 10, 25 and 50 centavos and 1 peso were introduced between 1867 and 1869. Gold 1, 2+1⁄2, 5, 10 and twenty-peso coins were introduced in 1870. The obverses featured the Mexican 'eagle' and the legend "Republica Mexicana." The reverses of the larger coins showed a pair of scales; those of the smaller coins, the denomination. Coins denominated "one peso" were made from 1865 to 1873, when 8-real coins of old design resumed production. In 1882, cupro-nickel 1, 2 and 5 centavos coins were issued but they were only minted for two years. In 1898 the 8 reales of "cap and ray" design was finally redenominated as "un peso" and continued to be minted as trade coinage until 1909.

20th century[edit]

A coin of a peso minted in 1921.

In 1905 a monetary reform was carried out in which the gold content of the peso was reduced by 49.36% and the silver coins were (with the exception of the 1-peso) reduced to token issues. Bronze 1- and 2-centavos, nickel 5-centavos, silver 10-, 20-, and 50-centavos and gold 5- and 10-pesos were issued.

In 1910, a new peso coin was issued, the famous Caballito, considered one of the most beautiful of Mexican coins. The obverse had the Mexican official coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak, standing on a cactus plant) and the legends "Estados Unidos Mexicanos" and "Un Peso." The reverse showed a woman riding a horse, her hand lifted high in exhortation holding a torch, and the date. These were minted in .903 silver from 1910 to 1914.

In 1947, a new issue of silver coins was struck, with the 50-centavo and 1-peso in .500 fineness and a new 5-peso coin in .900 fineness. A portrait of José María Morelos appeared on the 1 peso and this was to remain a feature of the 1-peso coin until its demise. The silver content of this series was 5.4 g to the peso. This was reduced to 4 g in 1950, when .300 fineness 25- and 50-centavo, and 1-peso coins were minted alongside .720 fineness 5 pesos. A new portrait of Morelos appeared on the 1 peso, with Cuauhtemoc on the 50-centavo and Miguel Hidalgo on the 5-peso coins. No reference was made to the silver content except on the 5-peso coin. During this period 5 peso, and to a lesser extent, 10-peso coins were also used as vehicles for occasional commemorative strikings.[9]

Between 1960 and 1971, new coinage was introduced, consisting of brass 1- and 5-centavos, cupro-nickel 10-, 25-, and 50-centavos, 1-, 5-, and 10-pesos, and silver 25-pesos (only issued 1972). In 1977, silver 100-pesos were issued for circulation. In 1980, smaller 5-peso coins were introduced alongside 20-pesos and (from 1982) 50-pesos in cupro-nickel. Between 1978 and 1982, the sizes of the coins for 20 centavos and above were reduced. Base metal 100-, 200-, 500-, 1,000-, and 5,000-peso coins were introduced between 1984 and 1988.

New peso coins[edit]

As noted above, the nuevo peso ("new peso") was the result of elevated rates of inflation in Mexico during the 1980s. In 1993, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari stripped three zeros from the peso, creating a parity of $1 new peso for $1,000 of the old ones.[6]

Coins of the new currency (dated 1992) were introduced in 1993 in the following denominations:

In 1996, the word nuevo was removed from the coins. In 1997 regular-issue 10-peso coins were minted with base metal replacing the silver center. In 2000 commemorative 20-peso coins also began to minted without silver. Though the 50- and 100-peso coins are the only currently circulating coinage in the world to contain any silver, they rarely circulate because their silver content of 1/2 troy ounce have exceeded 100 pesos in value since around 2010.

In 2003 the Banco de México began the gradual launch of a new series of bimetallic $100 coins. These number 32 – one for each of the nation's 31 states, plus Mexico City. While the obverse of these coins bears the traditional coat of arms of Mexico, their reverses show the individual coats of arms of the component states. The first states to be celebrated in this fashion were Zacatecas, Yucatán, Veracruz, and Tlaxcala. In circulation, they are extraordinarily rare, but their novelty value offsets the unease most users feel at having such a large amount of money in a single coin. Although the Bank has tried to encourage users to collect full sets of these coins, issuing special display folders for this purpose, the high cost involved has worked against them. Bullion versions of these coins are also available, with the outer ring made of gold instead of aluminum bronze.

As of 2020 the coins most commonly encountered in circulation have face values of 50¢, $1, $2, $5 and $10. Commemorative $20 coins are less commonly encountered than $20 notes. The 5¢ coin has been withdrawn from circulation in 2002, while the 10¢ and 20¢ coins have gradually dropped out of circulation due to their low value. Some commodities are priced in multiples of 10¢, but stores may choose to round the total prices to 50¢. There is also a trend for supermarkets to ask customers to round up the total to the nearest 50¢ or 1 peso to automatically donate the difference to charities.

1992 Series [10][11]
Value Technical parameters Description Minting history
DiameterWeightCompositionEdgeObverseReverseYearQuantity
15.5 mm 1.58 g Stainless steel
16% ~ 18% chromium
0.75% nickel, maximum
0.12% carbon, maximum
1% silicon, maximum
1% manganese, maximum
0.03% sulfur, maximum
0.04% phosphorus, maximum
remaining of iron
Plain State title, coat of armsStylized image of the solar rays of the “Ring of the Quincunxes of the Sun Stone.” 1992 136'800,000
10¢ 17 mm 2.08 g Stylized image of the “Ring of the Sacrifice of the Sun Stone.” 1992 ###,###
10¢ 14 mm 1.755 g Slotted State title, coat of armsStylized image of the “Ring of the Sacrifice of the Sun Stone.” 2009 ###,###
20¢ 19.5 mm (shortest)
Dodecagon
3.04 g Aluminium bronze
92% copper
6% aluminium
2% nickel
Plain State title, coat of armsStylized image of the “Thirteenth Acatl Day of the Sun Stone.” 1992 ###,###
20¢ 15.3 mm 2.258 g Stainless steel (as 10¢) Segmented reeding State title, coat of armsStylized image of the “Thirteenth Acatl Day of the Sun Stone.” 2009 ###,###
50¢ 22 mm
Scalloped shape
4.39 g Aluminium bronze
92% copper
6% aluminium
2% nickel
Plain State title, coat of armsStylized image of the “Ring of Acceptance of the Sun Stone.” 1992 ###,###
50¢ 17 mm 3.103 g Stainless steel (as 10¢) Reeded edge State title, coat of armsStylized image of the “Ring of Acceptance of the Sun Stone.” 2009 ###,###
N$1
or $1
21 mm 3.95 g
R: 2.14 g
C: 1.81 g
Ring:Stainless steel (as 10¢)
Center:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Plain State title, coat of armsStylized image of the “Ring of Splendor of the Sun Stone.” N$: 1992
$: 1996
###,###
N$2
or $2
23 mm 5.19 g
R: 2.81 g
C: 2.38 g
Stylized image of the “Ring of the Days of the Sun Stone.” ###,###
N$5
or $5
25.5 mm 7.07 g
R: 3.82 g
C: 3.25 g
Stylized image of the “Ring of the Serpents of the Sun Stone.” ###,###
$10 28 mm 10.329 g
R: 5.579 g
C: 4.75 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:
65% copper
25% zinc
10% nickel
Reeded edge State title, coat of armsCircle of the Sun Stone representing Tonatiuh with the fire mask. 1997 ###-###
Commemorative Coins (selected) [12]
ValueTechnical parametersDescriptionMinting history
DiameterWeightCompositionEdgeObverseReverseYearQuantity
$5 25.5 mm 7.07 g
R: 3.82 g
C: 3.25 g
Ring:Stainless steel (as 10¢)
Center:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Reeded edge State title, coat of armsMexican Bicentennial Series2008-2010 ###-###
N$10
or $10
28 mm 11.183 g
R: 5.579 g
C: 5.604 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:
92.5% silver (1/6oz)
7.5% copper
Reeded edge State title, coat of armsCircle of the Sun Stone representing Tonatiuh with the fire mask. N$: 1992
$: 1996
###-###
$10 28 mm 10.329 g
R: 5.579 g
C: 4.75 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:
65% copper
25% zinc
10% nickel
Inscription State title, coat of armsValue, Tonatiuh from the Aztec sun stone at the center, "AÑO 2000" or "AÑO 2001" instead of "DIEZ PESOS" as commemorative legend 2000 ###-###
N$20 32 mm 16.996 g
R: 8.59 g
C: 8.406 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:
92.5% silver (1/4oz)
7.5% copper
Segmented reeding State title, coat of armsMiguel Hidalgo1993 ###-###
$20 32 mm 15.945 g
R: 8.59 g
C: 7.355 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
Milled State title, coat of armsXiuhtecuhtli Year 2000, Aztec "New Fire" ceremony 2000 ###-###
Octavio Paz###-###
N$50 39 mm 33.967 g
R: 17.155 g
C: 16.812 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:
92.5% silver (1/2oz)
7.5% copper
Reeded edge State title, coat of armsValue, the Hero Cadets of the Battle of Chapultepec1993 ###-###
$100 39 mm 33.967 g
R: 17.155 g
C: 16.812 g
Ring:Aluminium bronze (as 50¢)
Center:
92.5% silver (1/2oz)
7.5% copper
Intermittent milling State title, coat of armsCoats of arms of the 31 States of Mexico and the Federal District
(In reverse alphabetical order)
2003 ###-###
Culture of the states (e.g. architecture, wildlife, flora, art, science, dances)
(In normal alphabetical order)
2005 ###-###
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Banknotes[edit]

First[edit]

A ten Pesos banknote of The London Bank of Mexico And South Americaat the National Numismatic Museum, Mexico City.

The first banknotes issued by the Mexican state were produced in 1823 by Emperor Agustin de Iturbide in denominations of 1, 2 and 10 pesos. Similar issues were made by the republican government later that same year. Ten-pesos notes were also issued by Emperor Maximilian in 1866 but, until the 1920s, banknote production lay entirely in the hands of private banks and local authorities.

In 1920, the Monetary Commission (Comisión Monetaria) issued 50-centavos and 1-peso notes whilst the Bank of Mexico (Banco de México) issued 2-pesos notes. From 1925, the Bank issued notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 pesos, with 500 and 1000 pesos following in 1931. From 1935, the Bank also issued 1-peso notes and, from 1943, 10,000 pesos. These notes are printed by the American Bank Note Company.

New serie of notes are printed and issued by the Bank of Mexico, starting in 1969 with 10 pesos, followed by 5 pesos in 1971, 20 and 50 pesos in 1973, 100 pesos in 1975, 1,000 pesos in 1978, 500 pesos in 1979 and 10,000 pesos in 1982.

Production of 1-peso notes ceased in 1970, followed by 5 pesos in 1972, 10 and 20 pesos in 1977, 50 pesos in 1984, 100 pesos in 1985, 500 pesos in 1987 and 1,000 pesos in 1988. 5,000-pesos notes were introduced in 1980, followed by 2,000 pesos in 1983, 20,000 pesos in 1985, 50,000 pesos in 1986 and 100,000 pesos in 1991.[13]

Series AA[edit]

Series A[edit]

Image Value Dimensions (millimeters) Design Date of
Obverse ReverseObverseReverseissue[16]
MXP $2000 157 x 67 mmJusto Sierra, UNAM'sCentral LibraryRoyal and Pontifical University of Mexico during the 19th century. 28 November 1983
MXP $5000 157 x 67 mmNiños Héroes, emblem of the San Blas BattalionChapultepec Castle, badge of the Heroic Military Academy12 September 1980
MXP $10,000 157 x 67 mmLázaro Cárdenas, La Cangrejera refineryTemplo Mayor discoveries, Coyolxauhqui18 March 1982
MXP $20,000 157 x 67 mmAndrés Quintana Roo, TulumMural of Bonampak, Yaxchilan Lintel 25 13 November 1985
MXP $50,000 157 x 67 mmCuauhtémocThe fusion of two cultures by Jorge González Camarena2 December 1986
MXP $100,000 157 x 67 mmPlutarco Elías Calles, façade of the Bank of Mexico buildingGuaymas Bay and white-tailed deer2 September 1991

Second peso[edit]

Series B[edit]

In 1993, notes were introduced in the new currency for 10, 20, 50, and 100 nuevos pesos. These notes are designated series B by the Bank of Mexico (Banco de México). (It is important to note that this series designation is not the 1 or 2 letter series label printed on the banknotes themselves.) All were printed with the date July 31, 1992. The designs were carried over from the corresponding notes of the old peso.

Series C[edit]

All Series C notes had brand new designs and were printed with the date December 10, 1993, but they were not issued until October 1994. The word "nuevos" remained, and banknotes in denominations of 200 and 500 nuevos pesos were added. The 500 nuevos pesos note was worth more than US$100 when it was introduced, but its value dropped to almost equal to $100 by the end of 1994.

Value Dimensions (millimeters) Design Date of
ObverseReverseissue
MXN $10 129 x 66 mmEmiliano Zapata, hands holding ears of maizeStatue of Zapata in Cuautla, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl3 October 1994[18]
MXN $20 129 x 66 mmBenito Juárez, coat of arms of the Second Federal Republic of MexicoBenito Juárez Hemicycle, Mexico City3 October 1994[18]
MXN $50 129 x 66 mmJosé María Morelos, flag used by Morelos at the Mexican War of IndependenceScene from Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán3 October 1994[18]
MXN $100 155 x 66 mmNezahualcóyotlSculpture of Xōchipilli, sculpture of Xiuhcoatl3 October 1994[18]
MXN $200 155 x 66 mmSor Juana Inés de la Cruz, a book, an inkwell and her libraryFaçade of the Temple of San Jerónimo 3 October 1994[18]
MXN $500 155 x 66 mmIgnacio Zaragoza, fragment of Fuertes combates sostenidos en los cerros de Loreto y Guadalupe by Josep CusachsPuebla Cathedral3 October 1994[18]

Series D[edit]

The next series of banknotes, designated Series D, was introduced in 1996. It is a modified version of Series C with the word "nuevos" dropped, the bank title changed from "El Banco de México" to "Banco de México" and the clause "pagará a la vista al portador" (Pay at sight to the bearer) removed. There are several printed dates for each denomination. In 2000, a commemorative series was issued which was like series D except for the additional text "75 aniversario 1925-2000" under the bank title. It refers to the 75th anniversary of the establishment of the Bank. While series D includes the $10 note and is still legal tender, they are no longer printed, are seldom seen, and the coin is more common. $10 notes are rarely found in circulation.

Starting from 2001, each denomination in the series was upgraded gradually. On October 15, 2001, in an effort to combat counterfeiting, Series D notes of 50 pesos and above were further modified with the addition of an iridescent strip. On notes of 100 pesos and above, the denomination is printed in color-shifting ink in the top right corner.

On September 30, 2002, a new $20 note was introduced. The new $20 is printed on longer-lasting polymer plastic rather than paper. A new $1000 note was issued on November 15, 2004, which was worth about US$88 upon introduction. The Bank of Mexico refers to the $20, $50, and $1000 notes during this wave of change as "series D1".

Series D
ValueDimensions (millimeters)Main ColorDescriptionDate of
ObverseReverseprintingissuewithdrawal
MXN $10 129 × 66 mm Aqua Emiliano Zapata, hands holding ears of maize Statue of Zapata in Cuautla, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl6 May 1994 1 January 1996[19]1997
MXN $20 Blue Benito Juárez, coat of arms of the Second Federal Republic of MexicoBenito Juárez Hemicycle in Mexico City6 May 1994
17 May 2001(polymer)
1 January 1996[19]
30 September 2002
current
MXN $50 Magenta José María Morelos, flag used by Morelos at the Mexican War of IndependenceScene from Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán6 May 1994
18 October 2000(iridescent)
1 January 1996[19]
15 October 2001
MXN $100 155 × 66 mm Red NezahualcóyotlSculpture of Xōchipilli, sculpture of Xiuhcoatl6 May 1994
18 October 2000(color shifting)
? (raised ink)
1 January 1996[19]
15 October 2001
19 December 2005
MXN $200 Green Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, a book, an inkwell and her library Façade of the Temple of San Jerónimo 7 February 1995
18 October 2000 (color shifting)
? (raised ink)
MXN $500 Brown Ignacio Zaragoza, fragment of Fuertes combates sostenidos en los cerros de Loreto y Guadalupe by Josep CusachsPuebla Cathedral
MXN $1,000 Purple Miguel Hidalgo, bell of DoloresUniversity of Guanajuato, Baratillo Fountain 26 March 2002 15 November 2004[20]

On April 5, 2004, the Chamber of Deputies approved an initiative to demand that the Bank of Mexico produce by January 1, 2006 notes and coins that are identifiable by the blind population (estimated at more than 750,000 visually impaired citizens, including 250,000 that are completely blind).[21]

On December 19, 2005, $100, $200, and $500 MXN banknotes include raised, tactile patterns (like Braille), meant to make them distinguishable for people with vision incapacities. This system has been questioned[citation needed] and many demand that it be replaced by actual Braille so it can be used by foreign visitors to Mexico not used to these symbols.[22] The Banco de México, however, says they will continue issuing the symbol bills.

The raised, tactile patterns are as follows:[23]

Value Description of pattern
$100 Five diagonal lines side by side, with a negative slope, each broken up into three segments.
$200 Small broken-up square pattern.
$500 Four horizontal lines under each other, each broken up into three segments.

Series F[edit]

In September 2006, it was announced that a new family of banknotes would be launched gradually. The 50-peso denomination in polymer was launched in November 2006. The 20-peso note was launched in August 2007. The 1,000-peso note was launched in March 2008.

The $200 was issued in 2008, and the $100 and $500 notes were released in August 2010. This family is the F Series. A revised $50 note, with improved security features was released on May 6, 2013. This note is part of the F Series family of banknotes issued by the Banco de Mexico (as Type F1).[24]

Series F [25]
ImageValueDimensions (millimeters)Main ColorDescriptionDate of
ObverseReverseObverseReverseprintingissuewithdrawal
Banco de México F $20 obverse.jpgBanco de México F $20 reverse.jpg$20 120 × 66 mm Blue Benito Juárez, balancing scale and book Monte Albán, mask of Cocijo19 June 2006 20 August 2007[26]current
Banco de México F1 $50 obverse.jpgBanco de México F1 $50 reverse.jpg$50 127 × 66 mm Magenta José María Morelos, flag used by Morelos at the Mexican War of IndependenceAqueduct of Morelia5 November 2004
12 June 2012 (F1)
21 November 2006[27]
6 May 2013 (F1)[28]
Banco de México F $100 obverse.jpgBanco de México F $100 reverse.jpg$100 134 × 66 mm Red NezahualcóyotlRepresentation of Templo Mayor aqueduct and central plaza of Tenochtitlan, glyph of Nezahualcóyotl 9 August 2010[29]
Banco de México F $200 obverse.jpgBanco de México F $200 reverse.jpg$200 141 × 66 mm Green Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, books, an inkwell, two pens and a library window Hacienda Panoaya in Amecameca, baptismal font and view of the Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl15 February 2008 8 September 2008[30]
Banco de México F $500 obverse.jpgBanco de México F $500 reverse.jpg$500 148 × 66 mm Brown Diego Rivera, Rivera's painting Desnudo con alcatraces, brushes and a palette Frida Kahlo; Kahlo's painting The Love Embrace of the Universe, the Earth (Mexico), Myself, Diego, and Señor Xolotl30 August 2010[31]
Banco de México F $1000 obverse.jpgBanco de México F $1000 reverse.jpg$1,000 155 × 66 mm Purple Miguel Hidalgo, bell of DoloresUniversity of Guanajuato7 April 2008[32]

Commemorative banknotes[edit]

On September 29, 2009, The Bank of Mexico unveiled a set of commemorative banknotes. The 100-peso denomination note commemorates the centennial of the Beginning of the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920). The 200-peso denomination note commemorates the bicentennial of the start of the Mexican War for Independence which began in 1810. There was a printing error in the $100 notes, in the small letters (almost unnoticeable, as they are very small and the same color as the waving lines), near the top right corner, just above the transparent corn, from the side of the "La Revolución contra la dictadura Porfiriana", it is written: "Sufragio electivo y no reelección" (Elective suffrage and no reelection), this supposed to be a quote to Francisco I. Madero's famous phrase, but he said "Sufragio efectivo no reelección" (Valid Suffrage, No Reelection). President Felipe Calderón made a newspaper announcement in which he apologized for this, and said that the notes were going to continue in circulation, and that they would retain their value.[33]

Likewise, a 100-peso banknote that commemorates the 100th anniversary of the enactment of the Constitution of Mexico was unveiled and issued in 2017.[34]

In 2019, the Bank of Mexico issued a new 200-peso banknote of the Series G issues, but containing a special overprint referencing the 25th Anniversary of the Bank of Mexico's Autonomy from the Federal Government.

Commemorative notes from Series F and G [35]
ValueDimensions (millimeters)Main ColorDescriptionDate of
ObverseReverseprintingissuewithdrawal
$100 134 × 66 mm Red Steam locomotive Del Porfirismo a la Revolución (From the Dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz to the Revolution) by David Alfaro Siqueiros23 September 2009[36]current
$200 141 × 66 mm Green Miguel Hidalgo carrying a banner that became the flag of the InsurgentsAngel of Independence located in Mexico City on the Paseo de la Reforma23 September 2009[37]
$100 134 × 66 mm Red President Venustiano Carranza and Chairman of Congress Luis Manuel Rojas being sworn in before the Constituent Assembly after amending the Constitution (1917). Congressmen swearing to observe and enforce the Mexican Constitution. 5 February 2017[38]

Series G[edit]

In August 2018 a new series of notes began circulation. New anti-counterfeiting measures were implemented. The obverse of the notes will portray important historical eras and individuals. The reverse of the notes will portray the various ecosystems of the country through one of the World Heritage sites of Mexico.

The 20, 50 and 100-peso notes are/will be produced in polymer, while the other banknotes will be printed on paper. $ 20 commemorative date does not exist yet. This series was not planned to a $20 note; it will gradually be replaced by a coin,[39] but a $20 note to commemorate the bicentennial of Mexican independence was issued in September 2021.[40] If Banco de Mexico finds that there is a necessity, the introduction of a $2,000 note will occur.[39]

[edit]

19th century[edit]

The Spanish dollar and Mexican peso served as global silver standardreserve currency, recognized all over Europe, Asia and the Americas from the 16th to 20th centuries. They were legal tender in the United States until 1857 and in China until 1935.

The 18th and 19th century Spanish dollar and Mexican peso were widely used in the early United States. On July 6, 1785, the value of the United States dollar was set by decree to approximately match the Spanish dollar. Both were based on the silver content of the coins.[43] The first U.S. dollar coins were not issued until April 2, 1792, and the peso continued to be officially recognized and used in the United States, along with other foreign coins, until February 21, 1857. In Canada, it remained legal tender, along with other foreign silver coins, until 1854 and continued to circulate beyond that date.

The Mexican peso also served as the model for the Straits dollar (now the Singapore dollar/Brunei Dollar), the Malaysian ringgit, the Hong Kong dollar, the Japanese yen, the Korean won, and the Chinese yuan.[44] The term Chinese yuan refers to the round Spanish dollars, Mexican pesos and other 8 reales silver coins which saw use in China during the 19th and 20th century. The Mexican peso was also briefly legal tender in 19th century Siam, when government mints were unable to accommodate a sudden influx of foreign traders, and was exchanged at a rate of three pesos to five Thai baht.[45]

21st-century use[edit]

The exchange rate of Mexican pesos per U.S. dollar since November 1991. Source: Bank of Mexico. latest rates

Some establishments in border areas of the United States accept Mexican pesos as currency, such as certain border Walmart stores, certain border gas stations such as Circle K, and the La Bodega supermarkets in San Ysidro on the Tijuana border.[46] In 2007, Pizza Patrón, a chain of pizza restaurants in the southwestern part of the U.S., started to accept the currency, sparking controversy in the United States.[47][48] Other than in U.S., Guatemalan, and Belizean border towns, Mexican pesos are generally not accepted as currency outside of Mexico.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Corporation, Bonnier (1 February 1930). Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved 16 October 2017 – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^"Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2013 : preliminary global results : Monetary and Economic Department"(PDF). Bis.org. September 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  3. ^"MXN - Mexican Peso rates, news, and tools". Xe.com. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  4. ^"Moneda: peso" [Currency: peso]. Banderas de Estado del mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  5. ^Babones, Salvatore (April 30, 2017). "'The Silver Way' Explains How the Old Mexican Dollar Changed the World". The National Interest.
  6. ^ abcDarling, Juanita (1 January 1993). "New Pesos Introduced in Mexico". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  7. ^Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Maximilian". Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  8. ^The Numismatist. 94. American Numismatic Association. 1982. p. 40.
  9. ^Polsson, Ken. "United Mexican States Coins: Type Collecting - Five Pesos". cointypes.info. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  10. ^Banco de MĂŠxico. "Banxico, banco central, Banco de México". Banxico.gob.mx. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  11. ^(PDF)https://web.archive.org/web/20070702193504/http://www.bibliojuridica.org/libros/1/263/5.pdf. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  12. ^[1]
  13. ^Bank of Mexico. "Demonetized A-type banknotes, issued and printed by Banco de México". Banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  14. ^ ab"Demonetized AA-type banknotes, issued by Banco de México and printed by the American Bank Note Company (ABNC)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  15. ^"Billetes desmonetizados de la familia AA, emitidos y fabricados por Banco de México". banxico.org.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  16. ^"Billetes desmonetizados de la familia A, emitidos y fabricados por el Banco de México". banxico.org.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  17. ^"Billetes en proceso de retiro de la familia B". banxico.org.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  18. ^ abcdef"Billetes en proceso de retiro de la familia C". banxico.org.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  19. ^ abcd"Billetes en proceso de retiro de la familia D". banxico.org.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  20. ^"Billetes en proceso de retiro de la familia D1". banxico.org.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  21. ^Ordenan emitir billetes para invidentesArchived 2005-09-20 at the Wayback Machine ("(The deputies) order production of bills for the non-seeing"). April 5, 2004. Retrieved on February 14, 2006 from esmas.com(in Spanish)
  22. ^[2][dead link]
  23. ^"Emisión de billetes de 100, 200 y 500 pesos con marcas que permitan identificar su denominación a las personas invidentes"(PDF). Banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  24. ^Mexico new 50-peso note reported BanknoteNews.com. May 7, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-05-08.
  25. ^ abBank of Mexico. "Currently manufactured, circulation, Banco de México". Banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  26. ^"20-peso banknote (F Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  27. ^"50-peso banknote (F Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  28. ^"50-peso banknote (F1 Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  29. ^"100-peso banknote (F Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  30. ^"200-peso banknote (F Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  31. ^"500-peso banknote (F Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  32. ^"1000-peso banknote (F Type)". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  33. ^Mexico 100-peso commemorative has error, BanknoteNews.com. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
  34. ^"Billete de 100 pesos F conmemorativo Const 1917, conmemorativo, Banco de México". www.banxico.org.mx.
  35. ^[3]
  36. ^"100-peso banknote commemorating the beginning of the Mexican Revolution". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  37. ^"200-peso banknote commemorating the beginning of Mexico's War of Independence". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  38. ^"100-peso banknote commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Enactment of the Constitution". banxico.org.mx. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  39. ^ abcdeMera, Isaid. "Desaparecerá el billete de 20 pesos". El Financiero (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  40. ^"Billete de 20 pesos de la familia G, conmemorativo del bicentenario de la Independencia Nacional".
  41. ^"Billete de 500 pesos de la familia G, circulación, Banco de México". Banxico (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  42. ^"1000-peso banknote G, circulation, Banco de México".
  43. ^Journals of the Continental Congress, Volume 28. 1785. pp. 354–357. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  44. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2012-09-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^Terwiel, B.J., Thailand's Political History, p. 160
  46. ^"La Bodega Market". Facebook.com. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  47. ^"Pizza chain sparks debate by accepting pesos". NBC News. 2007-01-12. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  48. ^Kovach, Gretel (2007-01-14). "Pizza Chain Takes Pesos, and Complaints". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-30.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_peso
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  3. Android bracelet charger

Cada país tiene su moneda, como cada país tiene su idioma; y del mismo modo que la historia de éste es la base de su filología nacional, la historia de aquella caracterizada distingue sus principales rasgos fisonómicos.

Santiago Ramirez IV.

Footless they climb step handless they travel, wandering from hand to hand. Speechless they give testimony of the sovereign's overwhelming power, untaught they tell of his superior might.

Ali. (qtd. in Kafadar 86).

 

The use of money expanded with the development of capitalism and the rise of the state. Money became integrated into society, which endowed it with significance, defined its appropriate spheres and created accompanying ritual. The first coins provided a standard unit of exchange for merchants and consumers. Coins also provided a means for the government to collect taxes and tribute in a more liquid form than grain or labor. Political leaders exercised control over the currency circulating in its realm by defining what money was valid for government transactions. Thus, coins became part of the political project communicating to even an illiterate audience. Political leaders chose their symbols based on locally-resonant images of power and legitimacy. These images, symbols and words represented a historically-generated cultural text, but also a cultural script informing subjects, citizens, enemies and innocent bystanders of the state's sovereignty.
However, these coins soon escaped the political borders where they were created. From the beginning of their use, trade spread coins along the path of human economic relationships. By the nineteenth century there was a quantitative and qualitative intensification of trade. Sea communication regularly carried trade goods and people around the globe. The truly revolutionary increase in trade occurred second half of the nineteenth century as the free trade regime enforced by the British Empire coincided with the introduction of steamboats and the opening of the Suez Canal. As a result, between 1850 and 1913 volumes of goods exchanged expanded tenfold (Topik 6). By then financial innovations like bills of exchange, silver notes and sight drafts would lessen the world's dependence on silver. However, this road to globalization had been paved not with good intentions, but silver coins.

Expanding global trade intensified problems merchants had experienced for centuries. Conducting transactions in unfamiliar currencies with differing weights and of unknown purity exposed the merchant to some risk. Moreover, profits remitted back to the home port in local specie might mean that merchants lost a percentage of the coins' value in moneychangers' commissions or that they received only the value of their coins' precious metal content. Exchanging products for products avoided currency problems, but only if there were mutually compatible goods on hand. International trade did not depend on a standard currency, but a widely recognizable coin facilitated the logistics of effecting purchases and remitting profits across continents and oceans. Such a standard currency made calculating profits and keeping track of expenses uniform over countries in the accounting systems of companies.

Coins from the Spanish Empire filled this need. The combination of Spain's abundant silver and fine mints made Spain the center of world coin production. By the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the silver mines of Mexico were the crown jewel of the Spanish Empire. The silver wealth generated in Mexico's mines gave raise to mythology of excess. One Mexican silver baron and owner of the famous Quintera mine, Señor Almeda, marked his daughter's wedding by paving the path from the church to his palacio with silver bars (White 29-30). However, the reality did not need much embellishment; Mexico produced almost 80% of the world's silver between 1500 and 1800 (Barrett 237).

For two hundred years, this silver from Mexico traveled in barely minted form. The single mint in Mexico City produced mainly rough coins destined for the furnaces of Europe until the 1730s. In a major shift in policy, King Felipe V shifted most of Spanish finished coin production to Mexico. By dint of its abundant silver, the Mexico City mint became the most important source of silver coins in the world. It was also one of the most modern. Presses with the latest screw technology stamped out well-centered coins with clear images (AGN 66: 2). The images themselves changed to incorporate the most sophisticated techniques available to discourage a number of creative fraudulent and counterfeiting practices (see fig.1).1 Spanish assayists from the mint in Seville monitored samples for image imperfections and tested coins for variations in silver content.
The dedication to maintain the coins' buena ley or high quality and consistency was notable especially considering the chronic shortage of government funds. Neither Spain nor Mexico ever resorted to debasing the currency to increase fiscal revenue. Spanish and Mexican coins never contained less than 90% of their weight in silver and silver content fell only 5.9% in total from the sixteenth to the end of the twentieth century (McMaster 372).2

Two coins dominated nineteenth-century production in Mexico: the Carolus IIII real and the Republican peso (see figs. 3; 4). The recovery of Mexican silver production and Spain's deepening financial problems during the reign of Carlos IV (1788-1808) created a huge volume of silver coins bearing his image. Under pressure from imperial wars with the stronger powers of England and France, the Spanish crown teetered on bankruptcy. The desperate king decreed in the Consolidación de Vales Reales that many of the Catholic Church's extensive assets be converted into silver for shipment to Spain as a "temporary" loan. As a result, the average silver coin exports increased to 15-16 million a year by the 1800 decade (Garner 578). Minting increased to 21.3 million reales a year in 1800 from 12.8 million in the 1750s (Garner 580).

Until the Mexican independence movement began in 1810, locally minted coins were faithful messengers of the metropolis. Coins minted in Mexico reflected changing values of the Spanish state. The most salient was the reform project of the late Bourbon kings that sought to modernize its administration and centralize political power.3 The coins of Carlos III followed this trend to its logical conclusion (see fig.2). The bust of the monarch himself appeared on silver reales displacing the familiar mares y mundos design. By the time Carlos IV ascended the Spanish throne in 1778, the practice of using the king's portrait on coins was well established (see fig. 3).4 The images on the coins succinctly summarized the Bourbon's political message. The obverse showed the Bourbon symbol and organizing principle of government, the bust of the king. The reverse defined the Crown's historic claim to Spanish territory. The coat of arms incorporated significant symbols of territory obtained through centuries of conquest and marriages. The Pillars of Hercules represented Spain's Indies possessions underlining the profoundly Spanish perspective of the coins. The reverse was an imperial map defining symbolically the limits of sovereignty while the obverse gave the locus of power or instrument through which it was exercised.5

After independence leaders of the new Republic of Mexico sought to consolidate the idea of Mexico as a nation. The prominence of Mexico's silver industry and mint meant that coin production had a special significance and priority for the new nation. Mexico had a standard coin design before it had a permanent form of government (Vázquez 33).6 Moreover, the fine quality and high productive capacity meant Mexico's leaders had access to an important mass media for state propaganda. For a generation of new Republican citizens, the coins reflected and created certain "catchsymbols," or distilled identity. The coin's design reaffirmed Mexico's political independence in the symbolic space; postcolonial Mexican pesos retained no image from their Bourbon predecessors. Nonetheless, Mexican coins followed the same format of Bourbon coins: one side showed the symbol of government while the other stated the historically-based claim to territory.

In fact the symbol that established this territorial legitimacy far predated any Spanish intervention. The new Congress officially iconized an early symbol of Creole identity. Republican coins pictured the eagle, snake and cactus over the waters of Lake Texcoco that Aztecs sought to found their capital Tenochtitlán, later Mexico City (see fig. 4).7 As the symbol of the government on the reverse, the Mexican Congress choose the Phrygian cap labeled "Libertad" surrounded by a sunburst. The Congress, following French revolutionaries, choose this soft cap to substitute the monarch's crown (Gumucio 75).8 The sunburst itself was the truly extraordinary element of the design. Every Catholic should have been familiar with the motif; saints, crosses, Mary and Jesus all feature exactly the same design element as a symbol of sacred power or purity. In the first flush of Republican idealism, the Congress sought to realign the cosmology of the newly minted Republican citizens. The symbol acknowledged the religious formation of the Mexican populace, but shifted its emphasis. Power emanated from a new and profoundly secular notion. It was not the other salient images, the liberty cap or eagle, that gave the peso its name within Mexico; the coins were known as the radiant pesos (pesos de resplandor) (Porrúa 96).

Images on Spanish reales and Mexican pesos communicated power, legitimacy and territorial sovereignty. The audience of this mass media was primarily the subjects and citizens who used the coins on a daily basis. The symbols produced and reproduced the state uniting diverse peoples with little else than geography in common. However, almost from the beginning of their creation, these coins began to escape the strict confines of the Spanish Empire. Coins were the silent partner of commercial expeditions, military campaigns and covert smuggling operations. Once freed from the Spanish Empire, these coins circulated throughout the globe following the path of human economic relationships. Mexican-minted Spanish coins appeared in the ports of the West Indies, Australia, the Baltic Sea, Russia, the western, eastern and northern coasts of Africa, the United States, India, Canada and Japan. By the early nineteenth century, the world commercial system had been built not on faceless Spanish silver, but on Spanish silver coins.

Spain bitterly lamented this loss of its silver. Spanish political economist Guillermo Uztáriz wrote in a treatise to King Philip in 1742 that Spain's most important assets, its pueblos, were bereft of silver coin despite "thousands of millions" of pesos imported since the discovery of America (30). To add insult to injury, this same Spanish silver was being used against it by its competitors, England, Holland and France to facilitate trade with the Levant in the land of their longtime enemies, the Ottomans.

Uztáriz correctly identified that abundant imports of silver had masked deep flaws in Spain's economy and that, as a result, Spanish silver stopped only briefly in Spain. On the other side of the Mediterranean, however, an Ottoman counterpart of Uztáriz had a different interpretation of Spanish silver coins. Ottoman political economist, Selaniki, warned his emperor that "(p)articularly the infidel rulers who are around and about (us) were hard-working and persistent in (the selling of) their gold and piaster. Through the execution of (their) orders and punitive authority, they did not (let the currency) change (but) said 'the Ottoman Empire is an example to us; see what kind of disorder will strike the state and the wealth of the land'" (qtd. in Kafadar 100-01). As with Uztáriz, Selaniki correctly identified a fundamental weakness of his empire. The state of Ottoman public finances was poor and emperors often resorted to debasing their currency, which allowed foreign coins to invade more successfully than any European army.

Turkey

Imperial currency…had become so small and broken-faced that instead of being the shining brightness of the garden and meadow of the empire and the plentiful flower petals of the vernal park of rulership it has now turned in appearance into drops of dew.
Ali (qtd. in Kafadar 88).

As with its coins, the Ottoman Empire territory also began to resemble a drop of dew. Insurgent movements in Egypt and Greece clipped off these economically and strategically important regions in 1805 and 1821-30. The Ottoman state also engaged in costly and ultimately unsuccessful military campaigns against other imperial powers Austria, Russia and France. The pressure these wartime expenses placed on Ottoman state's finances would be relieved through the debasement of the Turkish kurux..
Although there had been a long tradition of currency devaluations or ihtilal "disturbances" dating back to the sixteenth century, over Mahud II's reign (1808-39) devaluations were especially severe (Kafadar). Imperial mints struck ten series of coins and steadily decreased the silver content from 5.9 grams to less than 1 gram (Pamuk 970). The inconsistency of the key imperial currency made it less useful for large transactions. It was instead used as a token currency for low value purchases such as what an average citizen might buy for daily needs (Gerber and Gross). Foreign currencies with a more reliable silver content began to prevail for larger purchases and foreign trade.

The ability of the Ottoman Empire to enforce public use of its imperial currency and political control were closely related (Pamuk 948). The heaviest use of imperial coins found in the capital, Istanbul. Foreign coins infiltrated even this political center. While changing her English sovereigns in 1866, a British traveler received "a quantity of dirty paper of the value of a few pence, German krentzers innumerable, an English shilling, and a huge Turkish crown, mixed with francs and paras to one's utter bewilderment" (Hornby 278). This very public debasement contributed to the nineteenth-century trope of Turkish decay and wretchedness. Yet aside from the often-criticized travelers' accounts, Turkish intellectuals noted the connection between coins and public perceptions of the government's ability to rule. According to historian Ali writing in 1581-1586, coins expressed sikke, which was the written or physical form of hutbe, the greatness of royal prestige and reminder of the respect and obedience due to the ruler (see fig.5; Kafadar 86). The sad state of Ottoman coins reflected poorly, but truthfully on the waning power and might of the emperor. The growing fiscal demands on the Ottoman state were fulfilled by stopgap measures like currency debasements to increase fiscal revenue rather than other more sustainable means like raising internal taxes or foreign trade tariffs. Later in the nineteenth century the Ottoman State again postponed these painful reforms and resorted to foreign borrowing, something which would eventually result in the loss of its fiscal sovereignty. The weak Ottoman currency foreshadowed the political fate of the Empire as foreign coins made inroads into the Ottoman economy.

However, the debased coins did not necessarily reflect the state of the economy. Parts of the Ottoman Empire flourished over the nineteenth century as Macedonia, western Anatolia and the coast of Syria began to develop export agriculture (Pamuk 971). Outward-oriented trade introduced foreign coins into the domestic economy signaling divided economic loyalty. Most notable were foreign coins that circulated in the farther reaches of the empire passing freely with Ottoman coins. Perhaps most disturbing were rubles from Turkey's nemesis, Russia, that circulated in the Balkans and the Trabazon area (Pamuk 974). The Balkans also drew Austrian currencies and florins from nearby Italy, both of which circulated alongside Ottoman piastres (Mackenzie 38, 41; Pamuk 974). In the Middle East, the Iranian kran and the Indian rupee circulated in Iraq while the Maria Theresa thalers were current in Yemen (Pamuk 974).

It was this last coin, the Maria Theresa thaler, that finally displaced the Spanish real from the Middle East and East Africa in the early nineteenth century. Maria Theresa dollars were minted in Austria. Following the empress' death in 1780 all the subsequent coins featured the same design and this same year (see fig. 6).9 Maria Theresa thalers came into widespread use before Mexican pesos were widely exported. As a result, Maria Theresa thalers, not Mexican pesos replaced the Spanish real.10 Spanish coins did circulate and sometimes in areas quite close to the center of Turkish political power, Istanbul. Writing at the turn of the nineteenth century, chronicler al-Shihabi published an exchange rate table for common coins of Lebanon. He mentions two coins with local names, the Mushakas piaster and the bitaka franji (Gerber and Gross 355). Authors speculate that the bitaka franji was the Imperial Hungarian coin known more commonly as Abu Taka or pataque (Gerber and Gross 355). This was probably the Maria Theresa thaler and the Mushakas piaster the Spanish real. In a coin hoard discovered in Cairo, Egypt, researchers found an assortment of gold and silver coins from the turn of the nineteenth century. The hoard consisted of sixty-three larger silver coins minted in Istanbul dated from 1730-89, fifty Maria Theresa thalers and fifty-four Spanish reales from Carolus III and Carolus IIII (Seham 315). Many of the Ottoman coins said in Arabic: "Sultan of the two continents and Khakan of the two seas, the sultan son of the sultan." The fact that these coins were struck concurrently with the Spanish coins, "mundos y mares," signifying Spanish mastery over "two worlds and two seas" would not have escaped the contemporary observer.

Foreign trade with local merchants introduced coins like the Spanish real and the Maria Theresa thaler into Ottoman lands. But even as foreign trade divided economic loyalties, Muslim merchants dealing with foreigners received full legal rights (Kafadar 190). The Ottoman administration made no change in the local merchants status as subjects. Moreover, there was no change in the status of or understanding of that religious law that contributed to the commercial dynamism of early Islam. Merchants played an integral role in the Ottoman worldview. Four occupations made up Ottoman society: men of the sword, men of the pen, men of commerce and men of husbandry and agriculture (Kafadar 190). Each had their role in maintaining social order in the circle of equity; "there can be no royal power without the military, no military with wealth, no wealth with revenues, no revenues without justice and equity" (Kafadar 190).

Nonetheless, local merchants involved in outward-oriented trade began to shift their political loyalties to where their economic loyalties lie. At the behest of foreign powers, the Ottoman Empire permitted special local merchant courts to arbitrate legal disputes involving foreign nationals (Owen 90). Local merchants began to acquire European citizenship, joining French and British merchants in arbitrating against Turks in these commercial tribunals (Owen 99).

Through these footholds, foreign influence infiltrated the Ottoman Empire. In response, the Ottoman government did attempt arrest the process. To set itself on firm financial ground, the Ottoman administration issued interest bearing notes and contracted foreign loans. Part of these funds were used to standardize the imperial currency. In 1844, the government linked a new kurux to a gold lira in a money cleaning operation or tashih-i sikke (Pamuk 971). The overwhelming indebtedness created by these reforms eventually led to a financial crisis. To appease its foreign debtors the Ottoman Empire relinquished control over its own finances to a consortium of European interests (France and England primarily).

According to Turkish tradition, the first terrible sultans that swept through Europe collected a great hoard of treasure, an Imperial Haznè, and buried it deep in the Serraglio in Constantinople (MacFarlane 357-8). Each sultan rising to the throne vowed not to touch it, but to increase its volume through wise management of the empire's resources. At the prophesized moment of crisis when infidels (Ghiaours) would come to conquer Constantinople, the ruling sultan would empty the ancient chests to save the empire. For the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century, the chests had been turned inside out; foreign currency did not save the Empire's sovereignty, but facilitated its demise.

India

As the Mughal Empire began to break up into princely states in the later part of the eighteenth century, its administration's tight control over imperial currency loosened and many new coins appeared. Despite the seemingly chaotic situation, Spanish reales or Mexican pesos never played an important domestic role.

The Mughal imperial mint system established precedents that prevented any widespread domestic circulation of Spanish reales or Mexican pesos. In the mid seventeenth to mid eighteenth century the Mughal along with the Ming Empire were the two strongest and most highly developed commercial economies in the world (Chaudhuri "World Silver" 73). The Mughal government strictly oversaw the output of its imperial mints and in particular its standard imperial coin, the silver rupee.11 Quite the opposite was true for Southern India in territory outside of the Mughal Empire. Locally controlled mints there struck coins of widely different, but generally accepted denominational standards (Perlin 295). Regardless of the minted standards, the message on all Indian coins was zealously controlled (see fig.7). In accordance with Muslim law, the coins did not use any image. The coins contained two essential scripts both written in Persian characters: a passage from the Quran and the name of the reigning emperor. The coin institutionalized the ruler's connection with Islam, which ordered and legitimated political authority. While the phrase from the Quran differed, the ruler's place in the Muslim worldview was most clearly expressed on coins that stated "there is no other God than Allah and Muhammad is his prophet." Together with the required emperor's name, the coin established a clear hierarchy of authority and tied moral obligation to political authority; respect God, obey the law and follow the emperor. Like Turkish money, Indian coins expressed sikke, which was the physical form of kuhtba, the right for the ruler's name to be read in the mosque. Any foreign coin constituted a direct challenge to this basic equation.

Therefore under the Mughal administration, any silver destined to circulate domestically first passed through the furnaces of the empire's mints in such ports as Bengal, Gujarat or Madras (Moosvi 73). As the Mughal Empire entered into a permanent decline by the second half of the 18th century, political power began to decentralize. Mints proliferated as large holders of prebendial rights (saranjamdar) assumed the right to strike their own coins (Perlin 295-6). As the Mughal Empire proved unable to arrest growing local control, Northern India coin production began to resemble that of Southern India.

As a result at the turn of the century, over a thousand kinds of gold and silver coins of various sizes, purities, weights and values circulated as current in the Indian subcontinent (Mitra 23). Normally under such conditions Spanish and Mexican coins invaded the domestic economy. Yet, Spanish reales never played a significant domestic role in either Southern or Mughal India. Rupees continued to dominate even important international ports like Bengal and Calcutta (Williams 317, 321). From those cities they spread all along the land route from the Black Sea to India and among India's trading partners: Singapore, Malacca and Penang (Weeks; Williams 314-15).

Despite more local control, the strong incentives that bound key interests to the enforcement of a local currency ensured that the Mughal minting system continued in principle. Political leaders, no matter how local, still depended on coins to construct and reinforce their authority. Well-placed bureaucrats, Indian merchants and moneychangers, schroffs "were deeply involved in collaborating with the mint officials in maintaining a semi-monopoly in the supply of money" (Chaudhuri Trading World 308). These men traditionally procured raw material, silver, for the mints, which they continued to do. Incorporating the same men who dealt most with foreign currency into the minting apparatus closed a potential entrance point for Spanish or Mexican coins into the domestic economy. But also the loosening central control opened new spaces for these key figures to take a proprietary interest in official business. Some of the same men acquired the right to strike coins, which could turn into a very profitable business. Not every mint took this approach. Official concerns were more prevalent in the mints of Kolhapur and Pune (Perlin 297). However, it was these divergent strategies that created the noted multitude of coins.

Some mints specialized for market segments. The mints at Malwa and Malharshahi became known for lower-quality coins that were accepted as current only in their immediate vicinity (Perlin 304). Other local trade coins like the Northern Indian rupee, the Southern pagoda and the Varanasi rupees in Upper India circulated mainly within a certain territory (Perlin 301). Notably, the regional trade coins like the Chandore rupee from Western Deccan were struck in various mints with different administrations (Perlin 304). Other mints produced coins that closely matched the characteristics of Spanish reales. The Arcot and Murshidabad circulated all over the Indian subcontinent (see fig. 7; Perlin 305). Spanish coins did not circulate because entrenched interests blocked their entrance and there were domestic substitutes. Despite external perceptions of chaos or monetary anarchy, the multitude of early nineteenth-century Indian coins filled distinct niches in the Indian economy.

This diversity disappeared as the British East India Company began to fill the administrative void left by the Mughal Empire. As early as 1806 the Company's Court of Directors proposed a single currency (Nambudiripad 12).12 When the Charter Act centralized executive and legislative authority in the Council of Calcutta, the Council moved quickly and decisively. With the Silver and Gold Coinage Act of 1835 the Company decreed a standard silver rupee that came to dominate the subcontinent until 1893 (see fig. 8; Nambudiripad 15; Chandavarkar 770-71). Strong centralized control over India's domestic currency closed India's huge domestic silver market just as Mexican pesos began to circulate throughout the international commercial circuits.

China

'The gold flower puts forth its leaves. The silver tree is full of blossom." Wish for good luck put in a window on the Yangzi River by Chongqing.

Colquhoun 1: 104

The fastidiousness of the Chinese respecting certain coins is like that of the Turks and Arabs; and among them all it probably arose from the habit of receiving coins of a certain stamp, from a uniform experience that they were always good.
Williams 268

China's failure to impose a standard silver coin reflected the freedom that made it such a commercial success. However, the very reasons which prompted the freeform currency situation led eventually to greater control and intervention by foreign powers. Spanish and Mexican coins were the pioneers of imperialism and the medium which made foreign trade possible. These coins were integrated into the ritual life of China's inhabitants and given local names. However, isolated examples show that Chinese if given the opportunity to choose the content of their coins would have indigenized their symbols and images.
From 1644-1850, China's population rose from 100-150 million to 400 million (Wang 434). Likewise, the economy grew and along with it the need for a transaction currency. During the Ming dynasty, the Chinese Empire stopped minting silver coins issuing instead paper bills. Although China's government never stopped producing low-value copper coins, the Empire did not resume regular silver coinage until the twentieth century (see fig. 9). Without a government-issued silver coin, no universal standard obtained. The ungainly organic solution that developed used silver bars known as sycee (see figs. 10; 11). Merchants weighed pieces of sycee on special silver scales, lí-tang, snipping off pieces to make change. Although the weight could be determined relatively easily, the purity was always in question (Williams 279).

Without a significant source of silver within its borders, any major silver flows had to come from foreign trade. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese and Spanish and later the Dutch and English brought chests of silver coins to exchange for tea, silk and ceramics. The demand for silver and Spanish pieces of eight was great, "Chinas (sic) following this with such an earnest eagerness as not to [be] beaten from the place where they know it is, offringe their commodities to saile with an extraordinarie importunitie, and will as soone part with their bloode as it, having once possession" (Foster 228-9).
From Canton, the only legal port for foreign trade from 1757 until 1842, Spanish coins traveled along the coast from Canton to Manchuria in the ports and cities of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhiu, and Chihui (Kann 127). Spanish coins also spread internally following inland trade routes following the great canals from Tienstin to Shanghai (Wang 434; Allom 8). In the south (including the provinces on the southeast coast and along the Yangzi valley up to Hunan) silver dollars circulated with notes and taels (Wang 439; Kann). Areas more closely connected with the coastal economy used silver dollars. A nineteenth-century traveler paid new and chopped Mexican dollars during his Yangzi River voyage and sycee silver for the more isolated Yunnan land journey (Wang 434; Colquhoun 1: 217). The closer the integration with the larger regional economy, the more likely foreign coins would be accepted. Once the coins became established, residents of the "Flowery Land" took them as their own calling them the "flowered border" (Colquhoun 1: 217).13 In the far south on isolated Hainan island among the Le people, no silver circulated at all. Higher value transactions were conducted with opium balls (Henry 399).

As trade distributed silver among economically vibrant regions, the imperial government redistributed it with the major flows heading north to the capital of Beijing. As with governments around the world the relationship between Chinese state and society was cemented through taxes. The people above the Yangzi River going through Chongqing stated "(o)ur rulers want money, and care little about the means by which it is attained. If you know this, you know the principles and practice of the government" (Gutzlaff 207). This silver tie that bound the Imperial Court and its subjects was not consummated in foreign coins. The Kuping tael was the official currency for all government obligations in silver (Kann 153).14 People made direct tax payments to "money shops" or banks (Davis 2: 371). These intermediaries accepted any old coins or bits of sycee silver. The silver was melted down into a Kuping tael and sent to government coffers (Kann 153; Williams 177). Melting sanitized the silver before reaching the celestial port. Any evidence of its past as a foreign coin or wayward piece of silver was erased. The distinction was made quite clear in common usage. Foreign coins were called in general "fan-yin" or barbarian silver, "fan-ping" or barbarian cake, and "yang-ch'ien" or foreign coin (Yang 48-9).

Accordingly, foreign silver coins did not play a large role in official ritual and silver only a minor part. For example, during the celebration of the Emperor's [Káng-hsi] sixtieth birthday "a vast number of aged, but healthy men…(arrived)…from all the provinces. His Majesty gave to each of them twelve silver tael, a coin worth about five shillings, together with a gown of yellow silk, which is the imperial colour. Later he gave them a mandarin's suit, a staff, an inkstand and other things" (Ripa 87). The political and cultural brokers did not attach much cultural value on silver either as a metal or color. Silk, calligraphy and poetry were much more important. If the Spanish and Mexican silver pesos did not infiltrate official ritual, neither did the images on the coins communicate any direct subversion of Chinese symbols of state.

Government trade and trade constituted the two major forces within China that moved silver and determined the currency that was available for commercial purposes. The silver that circulated in Beijing and the north was largely sycee. At the northern trade port of Tienstin, resident merchants carried on a regular trade in Cantonese products paid in sycee silver. "The quantity of it was so great that there seemed to be no difficulty in collecting thousands of taels at the shortest notice" (Gutzlaff 129). In the north the sycee system using taels prevailed. In the south and along the coast, Spanish reales and Mexican pesos passed as current. The place where the two met was Shanghai. Shanghai was also exemplary of the struggle that faced China during the nineteenth century. Foreign intervention opened Shanghai's ports. The pressure created by a boom in foreign trade came to bear on the established and trusted Spanish Carolus IIII real. Only under extreme conditions provoked by a severe coin shortage did people adopt a new currency standard. The growing outward orientation of Shanghai exposed it to new pressures. The city found itself at the intersection of domestic and international trade and imperial and foreign governance all of which was mediated through local tradition.

For two-hundred fifty years regardless of domestic business cycles, China could always count on a steady silver inflow from its European trading partners. However, in the early nineteenth century, Chinese leaders noticed a serious shortage of silver within the empire. The viceroy of Fujian sent a report to the emperor in 1824 saying that "silver and copper coins have become very disproportioned in their relative values; the former rising, and the latter falling to an unusual degree" (qtd. in Davis 2: 370). For the viceroy, this shift in value constituted a serious problem for internal order since the military had been traditionally paid in copper cash and were experiencing a serious loss of value in silver terms. In reality, Chinese government was already aware of the drain in silver. The Chinese court had prohibited its export by imperial order as early as 1814 in the nineteenth year of Chia-ch'ing (Morse Chronicles 337). Later economic historians would confirm the suspicions of the Chinese court. Due to the growth in the opium trade, 50 million dollars were extracted from China by British ship mostly to India from 1818 to 1834 (Kann 127).15

Chinese leaders understood the problem. It is less clear, though, how much administrators realized the rise in silver prices resulted not only from the opium trade, but also from silver shortages stemming from over ten years of political and economic turmoil in the Spanish Americas. Regardless, the more vigorous enforcement steps that administrators took to remedy high silver prices would have permanent ramifications for internal stability and the sovereignty of the country.

Shortly after, the Chinese court began to put teeth into its many dead letter pronouncements against the opium agents operating off the coast of China. Captain Charles Elliot wrote on the 26th of January 1838 "there seems, my lord, no longer any room to doubt that the court has finally determined to suppress, or more probably most extensively to check, the opium trade. The immense, and it must be said the most unfortunate increase of the supply during the last four years, the rapid growth of the east coast trade in opium, and the continued drain of the silver, have no doubt greatly alarmed the government" (qtd. in Davis 1: 24). Persecuted on the coast, traffickers took to the rivers of China and eventually created the spark for the first of two Opium Wars (1840 and 1856).

This series of events revolutionized Shanghai. As a result of the Opium Wars, the ports of Shanghai were opened to foreign trade in 1842. Its close location to the silk of Suzhou and tea of Hanzhou and excellent port facilities quickly made it a hub of international trade along with the new English colony of Hong Kong. Despite the rise in trade, Shanghai merchants did not change their currency. The Shanghai were seemingly obsessed with the Carolus IIII dollar called "old head" or ssu-kung-yin dollars".16 At one point in the premium paid for Carolus dollars reached as high as 40% above Mexican dollars and over 30% above a tael's weight of silver (Williams 198-199). Reales of his son Fernando VII with an equal amount of silver sold for a discount of 30% (McMaster 389). Stated another way, by demanding Carolus reales Shanghaise received 30-40% less silver than instruments with nearly identical characteristics. The world was scoured for old Carolus reales as pundits noted incredulously the irrationality of the Shanghaise.

However, the demand did not come solely from the Shanghai. Only strong demand from the interior silk and tea regions could have sustained such high valuations. In each case, the problem lay not in irrationality. It is hard to argue that the silk and tea producers were backwards country folk when the region had a centuries-old tradition of foreign-oriented plantation production. Chinese in the interior recognized the Carolus coins as premium stores of value and unimpeachable medium of exchange. These functions became even more important in the midst of political and economic turmoil. Generic silver or any silver coin did not fulfill the same need; the images on the coins were communicated a guarantee of its value. The coins were so cherished that it took nothing less than the acute silver shortage caused by the opium trade plus a global silver shortage to induce Chinese consumers to switch from Spanish reales de a ocho to another standard coin, the Mexican peso.17

Once the change was made, consumers clung to Mexican pesos as they had to the Carolus dollar (Williams 198-199). In sixty years after the 1850s an estimated 400 to 500 million ying-yang or eagle dollars as the Mexican dollars were known circulated or were hoarded in China (Kann 145; Yang 48-9). The conversion even reached the Chinese interior. Older Spanish reales began reappearing in maritime ports as people substituted the Mexican pesos (Williams 269).

The switch to Mexican pesos was not even, uniform or even guaranteed. The North China Herald reported that most Shanghai retail merchants in the 1850s still used the Carolus silver dollar for their unit of account while wholesale merchants used the tael (Wang). Some firms around the 1856 took advantage of the par valuation between Carolus reales and Shanghai taels to switch accounting units (Kann 129). The storied Hongkong Shanghai Bank (HSBC) in Shanghai did not convert its accounting system to Shanghai taels until 1921 (Lagerberg 412). In Formosa, there was no currency change. The Carolus dollar remained the standard currency there until the Japanese took it in 1895 (Kann 128). In general, ports south of Shanghai adopted the Mexican dollar while those north remained on the nominal tael standard.

The large discrepancy between the Carolus coins' silver content and its market value highlighted the conflict between local beliefs and larger outside economic forces. Part of the reason that the Carolus real was so difficult to replace was that it was integrated into people's lives in a meaningful way.

In Shanghai, the economic function of the cherished Spanish real also melded with its ritual use. Ritual consumption of token goods and food played an important symbolic role is burial ceremonies and New Year's celebrations to honor gods or ancestors. Figuring prominently among the food and paper possessions was laminated coins symbolizing Spanish reales. Mainly women manufactured these coins placing a coating of tinfoil over paper (Taylor 118-19). The ritual use reflected the Spanish coins symbolism as representative of wealth and abundance within the pantheon of significant possessions.
Also in Shanghai, at the beginning of each year, households placed a painted figure on a scrap of paper above the cooking range (Taylor 252-53). This kitchen god observed the goings-on of the family during the year. At year's end, "a very adhesive kind of candy is placed before his godship, made in the form of Spanish dollars and lumps of Sycee silver." The stickiness of the candy was to "seal the lips of the god when he is sent up to the chief of the Chinese celestial deities to report the conduct of the different members of the family during the past year; so that when he is question (sic), he cannot open his lips to relate the deviations from rectitude he may have observed, but can only nod his head, which is taken as signifying that all have behaved will in the family where he presided." Silver not only sealed the lips of the god, but also the union between the secular and sacred. It was the product and participant in good fortune.

Foreign silver coins gained entry into both the Chinese economic and ritual realms. However, the coins did not pass through Chinese hands unscathed. Spanish and Mexican coins were sometimes covered with tiny Chinese character chopmarks that adulterated the strictly foreign content of the coins' images (see fig. 12). To validate the coin's value, merchants in southern ports like Canton and Hong Kong used a very small metal stamp to imprint its Chinese character on the coin (Kann 128-9). Less scrupulous moneychangers chiseled out their chopmark removing a very small portion of the silver. In northern ports and Shanghai, the moneychangers signed their chop in ink (Kann).

Chopmarks were used partially in response to widespread counterfeiting. There was a thriving domestic industry to mass produce counterfeited Spanish and Mexican coins. In Shunteh south of Canton, factories with as many as 100 workmen specialized in a variety of fakes, alterations and alloyed coins (Williams 270). One of the most common was replacing the core with lead. The problem was so prevalent that there was said to be both a forgery and detection manual. Some forgeries were nearly perfect. The images on a Chinese forgery of a Republican peso were so accurate they invited even specialists to speculate that the incorrect assayers' initials and mint marks were intentional (Halliday).18 The British East India Company itself forged dies and hired a Canton mint to manufacture Carolus III coins in 1779. The Company was outswindled with unscrupulous minters there quickly debased the coin to .600 (Hubbard 58).

In response, consumers demanded that the value of the coins be validated. Chopmarks guaranteed the full value of silver content. If the holder found a coin to be deficient, the merchant was obligated to restitute loss. In this way, chopmarks imposed a second authority and responsibility over the coins. The contract of value was no longer between the Spanish king or the Mexican Republic, but with the local moneychanger. With this visa, the foreign coins could circulate through the country. The act of localizing the content, however, destroyed the coins. Stamping mutilated their shape (see fig. 13). As different hands chopped the coins, the awls pushed them out into the form of mushrooms. These broken dollars lost the distinctive symbols that indicated their value. Without these distinctive marks, coins were only worth their weight in silver.

Chopmarks represented an organic strategy to indigenize the images on foreign coin for a Chinese audience. In another instance, a coin indicates that Chinese might have sought to include images that better reflected themselves. In an old box of coins from China, John Halliday found an 1819 Mexico City chopped coin of Ferdinand VII first believed to be a forgery. However, the weight and specific gravity showed it to be a genuine coin. An anonymous engraver had modified the king's portrait with a hand tool making him look distinctly Chinese (Halliday 45). It may have been a small and anonymous piece of resistance dropped in among the hundreds of millions of other coins, but it was a strong opinion that the coins did not represent the people they served.

Conclusion

Silver "is a vital resource, it is soft and seductive, but its national identity is utterly superficial and easily erased, its loyalties skin deep. Its value is unquestionable but its values dubious--it serves all masters and none"
Christopher Tomlins 1453


Some traditional monies like cowry shells successfully made the transition to an interregional currency. However, only precious metals like gold and silver were able to create the economic equivalences that tied the world together. Abstractly silver and gold provoked a convergence to an ultimate universal value-that of a single commodity price for precious metals. If the commodification of precious metals rendered them a relatively valueless value, Spanish and Mexican coins were a different issue. The Carolus IIII coin reached market valuations up to 40% over the intrinsic value of its silver. His son's coins and Mexican pesos, which should have fulfilled the same niche as the Carolus IIII coins and contained exactly the same amount of silver, circulated at a discount. The symbols and images served a vital role, much different from plain silver or any generic coin.
Spanish and Spanish American minted coins circulated first through Europe then the Mediterranean, Africa and Asia along established trading routes. Spanish reales de a ocho and later Mexican pesos became the world's most widely distributed coin. Through the vector of expanding European trade, the Spanish then Mexican coin carried with it locally significant messages to the rest of the world in perhaps the world's most effective and pervasive medium. Local merchants exchanged their economic products for cultural by-products. Foreign coins were important first colonizing forces entering even before foreign merchant trade reached a city. These coins informed citizens of alternate states and their pantheon of meaningful symbols. Where these images did not conflict with official state icons, the coins were tolerated obliquely.

Once circulating within the national and local economies Spanish coins challenged local political imagistic purity on a daily basis. These coins were extremely hard to eradicate. As nations began to take firmer control over their own official projection, nations began to demonetize the Spanish real and Mexican peso. Starting in the 1850s Canada, Japan and the US recognized only their own official state currency as legal tender (McMaster 375. Enforcing a state currency in the face of entrenched local acceptance and trust of its citizens required a sustained and serious administrative effort. Countries without that administrative power also found themselves accepting dictates of other nations on international trade regulation, legal arbitration and tax treatment. Spanish and Mexican coins did not imply a political confrontation; however, it was a political challenge to test the state's capability.

Fig. 1. Mundos y mares or pillar dollar. 1754. Mexico City. Casa de Moneda de México. Historia Numismática. <http://www.cmonedam.com.mx/cmm/cmm_bastidores.htm>

Fig. 2. Carolus III real. 1772. Mexico City. Casa de Moneda de México. Historia Numismática. <http://www.cmonedam.com.mx/cmm/cmm_bastidores.htm>

Fig. 3. Carolus IIII real. 1803. Mexico City. Casa de Moneda de México. Historia Numismática. <http://www.cmonedam.com.mx/cmm/cmm_bastidores.htm>

Fig. 4. Republican peso. 1854. Mexico City. Casa de Moneda de México. Historia Numismática. <http://www.cmonedam.com.mx/cmm/cmm_bastidores.htm>

Fig 5. Gold coin of Mahmud 1, 1730. Istanbul. Turkish Cultural Foundation. The Turkish Ottoman and Seljuk Coins. <http://www.turkishculture.org/monetary/coinage.html>

Fig. 6. Maria Theresa Thaler. 1780 Maria Theresa Silver Thaler. <http://www.24carat.co.uk/mariatheresathaler.html>

Fig. 7. Parekh, Varun. Alamgir II Arcot Silver Rupee. Minted at Madras and struck in Arcot from 1759 to 1806 with frozen regal year 6. Ancient India Coins Prior to 1857. <http://www.angelfire.com/on2/coins/ancient.html>

Fig. 8. Parekh, Varun Victoria Silver Rupee. Minted at Madras in 1862. British India Coins 1857-1947. <http://www.angelfire.com/on2/coins/british.html>

Fig. 9. Belyaev, Vladimir. Bronze coin. Beijing 1644. Shun Chih Coins. <http://www.sportstune.com/chinese/coins/shunchih.html>

Fig. 10. Shan-Si sycee. Example of China silver sycee. <http://www.charm.ru/library/sycee2.htm>

Fig. 11. Jiang-Si sycee. Example of China silver sycee. <http://www.charm.ru/library/sycee2.htm>

Fig. 12. Tai, Stephen. Chopmarked Mexican Republican peso. Chopmarks on 5 Mexican Silver Dollars. December 18, 1999 <http://www.charm.ru/coins/misc/chopmarks.shtml>

Fig. 13. Tai, Stephan. Chopmarked Fernando VII real. Chopped Dollars. Feb. 28, 1998 <http://www.charm.ru/library/fsilver2.htm>


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Notes

1 The crown passed a royal order (Ordenanza e Instrucción) dated March 9, 1728 requiring that all coins have a "cordoncillo o laurel al canto" to make falsification difficult (Herrera 17). If coins were struck off center or otherwise lacked a standard milled border, it was relatively easy to clip silver from their edges. Another method of obtaining metal, slinging or whirling, was done by placing coins into canvas bag and whirling them for several hours (Mossman 56). The bag was then burned and chips of metal recovered from the ash.
2 The Republic of Mexico continued the late colonial standard of 10d 20g even stamping the purity on the face of the coin. Both Spain and Mexico used the medieval system of dineros and granos to measure the fineness of their coins. Twelve dineros designated pure silver. Each dinero was divided into 24 granos. A coin of 10 Ds. 20Gs equated to .902777 fine.
3 There is an extensive corpus of literature dealing with the Bourbon reforms. See Lynch 3-50 for a good introduction to this subject.
4 The practice of using the king's portrait created an interesting problem. The dies of the new king took as long as a couple of years to arrive at Spanish American mints. In these cases the old portrait was used and the lettering modified. This may explain why Carolus IIII was used rather than Carolus IV.
5 The royal coat of arms on the coins consisted of a quartered shield with castles and lions rampant in alternating cantons (Grove n1606). These symbolized the original Castile and León of Isabel (1474-1504), nucleus of the Spanish kingdom. In the small center shield are three fleurs-de-lis from the house of Bourbon. At the bottom of the shield is a pomegranate symbolizing Granada, the last Spanish territory reconquered from the Moors. The crown is royal in keeping with the basic design from the dos mundos coins.
6 A permanent government was not established until 1824. A decreto dated August 1, 1823 defined the Republic's new money using José Mariano Torreblanca's coin design (Salmeron 53). Mexican mints used this basic coin design through the nineteenth century. The exception was the short interlude of the French Intervention from 1866 to 1867 and a balance style peso struck from 1869 to 1873 (Pradeau 309).
7 While eagles and snakes are native to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Europe, cacti are only endogenous in the Americas (Crosby 4). Although the eagle/nopal symbol first appeared on insurgent coins in 1811, the design had been the subject of New Spain literature for centuries. See Florescano for a recent discussion of how this image developed as a symbol for the entire nation.
8 A notable early insurgent coin exhibited an organic strategy to show how the nation trumped the crown. In Grove n2202 the normal bridge design over which sat the nopal and eagle was converted into an imperial crown.
9 These circulated throughout the Middle East and parts of Africa like Nigeria and the eastern coast of Africa-all areas with a large Muslim population.
10 Although the mint of the Mexico City Central Bank fulfilled an order from Saudi Arabia for thirty million 1-riyal pieces in 1949 (Pradeau 1: 287).
11 This silver rupee weighed 11.6 grams and was .985 fine.
12 This silver rupee was 180 grains troy with a fineness of .917 or 11/12 fine. This was also the weight of a tola in popular use in India (Nambudiripad 12).
13 The place in question is on the West River between Wu-chau and Pesê (Colquhoun 1: 217).
14 After 1850, Maritime Customs managed by foreign interests accepted Haikwan taels (Kann 153).
15 The silver that was exported from China to India was mostly in the form of sycee silver and broken dollars (Williams 274). Indian mints priced the sycee and coins for their silver content. Since coins were more valuable as money in China, they were retained there.
16 The Carolus dollar (IIII variety) was called ssu-kung yin because the Roman numeral "I" looked like the Chinese character "kung" or "gong" (Yang 49). This would translate to "four worker dollar."
17 Wang estimates that 134 million dollars left the country from 1827-1849 due to the opium trade (442).
18 The assayers' initials and mint name were one letter not two: for example, Z for Zacatecas not Zs, G for Guanajuato not G with an o in it and M for Mexico City not M with an o over it (Halliday 46).

Sours: https://case.edu/affil/sce/Texts_2002/Conover.htm
Mexican Libertad Coin Price February 28, 2020

Mexican coins catalog

 

Index » World coins » America » Mexico modern

 

Previous - Mexican coins before 1905
See also - commemorative Mexican coins

 

United States of Mexico (from 1905)

Mexican Peso=100 centavos (1905-1991)

coin Mexico 1000 pesos 1989
1000 pesos 1989 (1988-1992)

1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992
aluminum-bronze
$1000 1989 / JUANA DE ASBAJE / Bust 1/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

 

coin Mexico 500 pesos 1987
500 pesos 1987 (1986-1992)

1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1992
copper-nickel
$500 / 1987 / MADERO / Bust 1/4 right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

 

coin Mexico 100 pesos 1977
100 pesos 1977 (1977-1979)

1977, 1978, 1979
silver
CIEN PESOS / 1977 / PLATA PURA 20 GR. LEY .720 / Bust facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $20-25

 

coin Mexico 100 pesos 1989
100 pesos 1989 (1984-1992)

1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992
aluminum-bronze
$100 1989 / M.CARRANZA / Bust 1/4 right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

 

coin Mexico 50 pesos 1982
50 pesos 1982 (1982-1984)

1982, 1983, 1984
copper-nickel
COYOLXAUHQUI / TEMPLO MAYOR DE MEXICO / $50 1982 / Aztec goddess Coyolxāuhqui
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3

 

coin Mexico 50 pesos 1985
50 pesos 1985 (1984-1988)

1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988
copper-nickel
$50 1985 / JUAREZ / Bust 1/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 50 pesos 1990
50 pesos 1990 (1988-1992)

1988, 1989, 1990, 1992
stainless steel
$50 1990 / JUAREZ / Bust 1/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 20 pesos 1981
20 pesos 1981 (1980-1984)

1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984
copper-nickel
CULTURA MAYA / $20 1981 / Figure with headdress facing left within circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

coin Mexico 20 pesos 1985
20 pesos 1985 (1985-1990)

1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990
brass
$20 1985 / Bust facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 10 pesos 1956
10 pesos 1956 (1955-1956)

silver
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / DIEZ PESOS / 28.888 G / 1956 / LEY .900 / National arms
HIDALGO / INDEPENDENCIA Y LIBERTAD / Head left
Coin value - $30-40

 

coin Mexico 10 pesos 1976
10 pesos 1976 (1974-1977)

1974, 1975, 1976, 1977
copper-nickel
10.00 g., thin flan
DIEZ PESOS 1976 / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

coin Mexico 10 pesos 1980
10 pesos 1980 (1978-1985)

1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985
copper-nickel
11.50 g., thick flan
DIEZ PESOS 1980 / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

coin Mexico 10 pesos 1987
10 pesos 1987 (1985-1990)

1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990
stainless steel
$10 1987 / Head facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1948
5 pesos 1948 (1947-1948)

silver
CINCO PESOS / 30 GRAMOS LEY 0.900 1948 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $25-30

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1953
5 pesos 1953 (1951-1954)

1951, 1952, 1953, 1954
silver
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / PESO 27-6 / LEY 0.720 / CINCO PESOS 1953
HIDALGO / Head left inside the wreath
Coin value - $18-23

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1957
5 pesos 1957 (1955-1957)

1955, 1956, 1957
silver
CINCO PESOS / 18.055 G 1957 LEY .720 / ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
INDEPENDENCIA Y LIBERTAD / HIDALGO / Head left
Coin value - $15-20

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1972
5 pesos 1972 (1971-1978)

1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978
copper-nickel
CINCO PESOS 1972 / Uniform bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1980
5 pesos 1980 (1980-1985)

1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985
copper-nickel
5$ / QUETZALCOATL / 1980 / Native sculpture left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1985
5 pesos 1985 (1985-1988)

1985, 1987, 1988
brass
1985 $5 / Value and date
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1910
1 peso 1910 (1910-1914)
1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914
silver
UN PESO / ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
1910 / Horse and rider facing leftamong sun rays
Coin value - $70-90

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1919
1 peso 1919 (1918-1919)
silver 0.800
UN PESO 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $100-150

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1926
1 peso 1926 (1920-1945)
1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1938, 1940, 1943, 1944, 1945
silver 0.720
UN PESO 1926 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $12-15

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1948
1 peso 1948 (1947-1949)
1947, 1948, 1949
silver
UN PESO 1948 14 Gr 0.500 / HIDALGO / Head with headcovering right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $12-15

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1950
1 peso 1950
silver
1 PESO 1950 / Armored bust 3/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $8-12

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1964
1 peso 1964 (1957-1967)
1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967
silver
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / UN PESO 1964 / National arms
Armored bust right withinwreath
Coin value - $5-7

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1971
1 peso 1971 (1970-1983)

1970, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983
copper-nickel
UN PESO 1971 / Armored bust left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1986
1 peso 1986 (1984-1987)

1984, 1985, 1986, 1987
copper-nickel
1$ 1986 / Armored bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1906
50 centavos 1906 (1905-1918)

1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1918
silver
50 CENTAVOS 1906 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-15

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1919
50 centavos 1919 (1918-1919)

silver 0.800
50 CENTAVOS 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-20

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1920
50 centavos 1920 (1919-1945)

1919, 1920, 1921, 1925, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945
silver 0.720
50 CENTAVOS 1920 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $7-10

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1935
50 centavos 1935

silver 0.420
50 CENTAVOS 1935 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-15

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1950
50 centavos 1950 (1950-1951)

billon
1950 / 50 CS / Head with head covering right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $6-9

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1956
50 centavos 1956 (1955-1959)
1955, 1956, 1957, 1959
bronze
CINQUENTA CENTAVOS / 1956 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1968
50 centavos 1968 (1964-1969)

1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969
copper-nickel
CINQUENTA CENTAVOS / 1968 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1975
50 centavos 1975 (1970-1983)

1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983
copper-nickel
another eagle and snake
CINQUENTA CENTAVOS / 1975 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1983
50 centavos 1983

stainless steel
50C 1983 PALENQUE / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $3-4

 

 

coin Mexico 25 centavos 1953
25 centavos 1953 (1950-1953)

1950, 1951, 1952, 1953
silver
25 CS /Mo 1953 / Scale below Liberty cap
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3

 

coin Mexico 25 centavos 1964
25 centavos 1964 (1964,1966)

copper-nickel
VENTICINCO CENTAVOS / 1964 / Bust at 3/4
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1907
20 centavos 1907 (1905-1914)

1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914
silver
20 CENTAVOS 1907 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1919
20 centavos 1919

silver
3.6250 g., 0.800 silver
20 CENTAVOS 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1920
20 centavos 1920 (1920-1943)

1920, 1921, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943
silver
3.3333 g., 0.7200 silver
20 CENTAVOS 1939 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / 0720
Coin value - $6-8

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1935
20 centavos 1935 (1920, 1935)
bronze
20 C 1935 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1945
20 centavos 1945 (1943-1955)
1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
bronze
20 CENTAVOS 1945 / Liberty cap divides value above Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán, volcanos Ixtaccihuatl and Popocatepet in background
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1971
20 centavos 1971 (1955-1971)
1955, 1956, 1959,1960, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971
bronze
changed coat of arms
20 CENTAVOS 1971 / Liberty cap divides value above Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán, volcanos Ixtaccihuatl and Popocatepet in background
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1974
20 centavos 1974 (1971-1974)
1971, 1973, 1974
bronze
another eagle and snake
20 CENTAVOS 1974 / Liberty cap divides value above Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán, volcanos Ixtaccihuatl and Popocatepet in background
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1982
20 centavos 1982 (1974-1983)

1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983
copper-nickel
1982 / 20 C / Bust 3/4 facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1983
20 centavos 1983 (1983-1984)

bronze
1984 / CULTURA OLMECA / 20 C / Cultura Olmeca mask
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 1905
10 centavos 1905 (1905-1914)

1905, 1906, 1907, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914
silver
10 CENTAVOS 1905 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty capabove
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $6-8

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 1919
10 centavos 1919

silver 0.800
10 CENTAVOS 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty capabove
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $20-25

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1920
10 centavos 1920 (1919-1921, 1935)
1919, 1920, 1921, 1925
bronze
10 C 1920 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 1925
10 centavos 1925 (1925-1935)

1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1933, 1934, 1935
silver 0.720
10 CENTAVOS 1925 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $6-8

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 1936
10 centavos 1936 (1936-1946)

1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1945, 1946
copper-nickel
10 CENTAVOS 1936/ Value and date within ornament circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-3

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 1967
10 centavos 1967 (1955-1967)
1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1966, 1967
bronze
DIEZ CENTAVOS 1967 / Bust left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 1977
10 centavos 1977 (1974-1980)

1974, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980
copper-nickel
10 CS 1977 / Upright ear of corn
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1906
5 centavos 1906 (1905-1914)

1905, 1906, 1907, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914
nickel
5 CENTAVOS 1906 / Value and date within ornament circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $3-4

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1927
5 centavos 1927 (1914-1935)

1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935
bronze
5 C 1927 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $7-10

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1936
5 centavos 1936 (1936-1942)

1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1942
copper-nickel
5 CENTAVOS 1936 / Value and date within ornament circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1954
5 centavos 1954 (1942-1955)
1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955
bronze
CINCO CENTAVOS 1954 / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1950
5 centavos 1950

copper-nickel
5 CENTAVOS 1950 / Bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $5-8

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1956
5 centavos 1956 (1954-1969)
1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969
brass
CINCO CENTAVOS 1956 / Bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1974
5 centavos 1974 (1970-1976)

1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976
brass
CINCO CENTAVOS 1974 / Bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 2 centavos 1939
2 centavos 1939 (1905-1941)

1905, 1906, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1935, 1939, 1941
bronze
2 C 1939 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $5-6

 

 

coin Mexico 1 centavo 1939
1 centavo 1939 (1905-1949)
1905, 1906, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949
bronze
1 C 1939 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-4

 

coin Mexico 1 centavo 1964
1 centavo 1964 (1959-1969)

1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969
brass
1 C 1964 / Oatsprigs
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - ~$1

 

coin Mexico 1 centavo 1970
1 centavo 1970 (1970-1973)

1970, 1972, 1973
brass
1 C 1970 / Oat sprigs
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-20

 

 

Reform 1992
Mexican Peso=100 centavos

coin Mexico 50 pesos 1993
50 new pesos 1993 (1993-1995)

1993, 1994, 1995
bi-metallic - silver/brass
N$50 1993 / NINOS HEROES / Six heads facing within 1/2wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $25-30

 

 

coin Mexico 20 pesos 1993
20 new pesos 1993 (1993-1995)

1993, 1994, 1995
bi-metallic - silver/aluminum-bronze
N$20 1993 / HIDALGO / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $15-20

 

 

coin Mexico 10 pesos 1994
10 new pesos 1994 (1992-1995)

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
bi-metallic - silver/aluminum-bronze
N$10 1994 / DIEZ NUEVOS PESOS / Aztec design of Tonatiuh with the Fire Mask
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $8-10

 

coin Mexico 10 pesos 201610 pesos 2016 (1997- )
1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
bi-metallic - copper-nickel/brass
current circulating coin
$10 2016 Mo / DIEZ PESOS / Aztec design of Tonatiuh with the Fire Mask
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3

 

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 1993
5 new pesos 1993 (1992-1995)
1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
1994 / N$5 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

coin Mexico 5 pesos 2016
5 pesos 2016 (1996- )

1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 / $5 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2

 

 

coin Mexico 2 pesos 1994
2 new pesos 1994 (1992-1995)
1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
1994 / N$2 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 2 pesos 2016
2 pesos 2016 (1996- )

1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 / $2 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 1992
1 new peso 1992 (1992-1995)

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
1992 / N$1 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 1 peso 2016
1 peso 2016 (1996- )

1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 / $1 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 1997
50 centavos 1997 (1992-2009)

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
aluminum-bronze
1997 50 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 50 centavos 2016
50 centavos 2016 (2009- )

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 50 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 2002
20 centavos 2002 (1992-2009)

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
aluminum-bronze
2002 20 C / Value and date within 3/4 wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 20 centavos 2016
20 centavos 2016 (2009- )

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 20 C / Value and date within 3/4 wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 1999
10 centavos 1999 (1992-2008)

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
stainless steel
1999 10 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

coin Mexico 10 centavos 2016
10 centavos 2016 (2009- )

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 10 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

 

coin Mexico 5 centavos 1994
5 centavos 1994 (1992-2002)

1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002
stainless steel
1994 5 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1

 

More Mexican coins (in Spanish)

 

 

 

 

Sours: https://worldcoinsinfo.com/world/mexico-coins.html

Images mexican coins

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Mexican Libertad Coin Price February 28, 2020

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