Modern embedded designs require a wide range of capabilities, including low power support, high performance/throughput, function-rich peripherals, different connectivity options, large internal memory, scalable CPU core, high code density, and easy access to a development tools and hardware. As these options are available in 32-bit MCU devices, this will be the common choice for designer.
ARM is a popular 32-bit core that is licensed across multiple vendors. This gives a unique flexibility for designers to move from one supplier to another without worrying whether the application development environment will change. Choosing a 32-bit device means not only finding the special peripherals needed to meet your system’s requirements today but to also secure the ability to upgrade the device in the future. This is more easily achieved with 32-bit devices since most embedded system R&D effort is focused on 32-bit cores.
However, you have to be careful and aware of how to leverage the features of the 32-bit CPU to the advantage of your application. This article discusses the need for moving to 32-bit systems from 8/16 bit MCUs and explores issues that you need to consider while migrating to shorten your time to market.
Throughput and CPU Performance:
Throughput is the number of instructions that can be processed by a CPU in a given unit of time. The higher the throughput, the more work the system can complete. There are two factors that define a CPU’s capacity for doing work in a given unit of time. The first one is the speed at which the CPU executes instructions. The Dhrystone benchmark is a popular synthetic benchmark for embedded systems to produce a measure of CPU performance in DMIPS/MHz. For example, Table 1 shows the performance measures for different 8-bit and 32-bit cores. Not surprisingly, 32-bit cores show a significant performance advantage.
Table 1: CPU performance comparison
|Architecture||Processor Example||Performance (Speed, MIPS)||Device details|
|8-bit M8C core||PSoC 1||Up to 24 MHz, 4 MIPS||CY8C29XXX|
|8-bit PIC Core||PIC18F||Up to 40 MHz, 10 MIPS||PIC18FXX2|
|Enhanced 8-bit 8051 core||AT89LP||Up to 20 MHz, 20 MIPS||AT89LP828|
|Enhanced 8-bit 8051 core||PSoC 3||Up to 67 MHz, 33 MIPS||CY8C38XXX|
|32-bit ARM Cortex-M0+||PSoC 4||Up to 48 MHz, 0.9 DMIPS/MHz, 43 DMIPS||CY8C4Axx|
|32-bit ARM Cortex-M3||PSoC 5||up to 80 MHz, 1.25 DMIPS/MHz, 100 DMIPS||CY8C58LP|
The second factor is the amount of data a CPU can process at a given speed. An 8-bit CPU has 8 digital lines (data-buses) in parallel. This allows an 8-bit MCU to work with values only from 0 to 28 (255) each clock cycle. In contrast, a 32-bit CPU has 32 parallel digital lines, allowing it to handle values from 0 to 232 (4,294,967,295) each clock cycle. This shows the significance of 32-bit architectures over 8-bit in terms ofprocessing power.
This plays a role in the efficiency of executing mathematical operations. 32-bit MCUs are more efficient in processing math operations on numbers that are longer than 8-bits. To implement mathematical operations of 32-bit numbers with an 8-bit MCU requires more CPU cycles as compared to a 32-bit CPU. Depending on how processing intensive your application is and how many calculations it makes, this can affect the performance of the circuit.
With its larger data-bus, a 32-bit MCU can also access larger memory spaces. A 32-bit data path also enables faster copying of large chunks of data as compared to an 8-bit MCU as a 32-bit MCU is capable of handling four times the data at a time. For an application wherein the primarily function is to stream data from one place to another (for example, implementing an UART to USB bridge), a 32-bit MCU will be more suitable than an 8-bit MCU.
Table 2: Data/Memory Access capabilities 8-Bit vs 32-Bit
|Data / Memory access capability||28 = 255||232 = 4,294,967,295|
For embedded systems that are battery powered, power consumption is a key factor that you need to consider early in your design. While a CPU’s datasheet may provide some insights on active current and certain low power modes current consumption numbers, it is average power that determines how efficient a given application is in the end. With the latest process technologies in place, 32-bit MCUs are no longer power hungry in comparison to 8-bit MCUs. In addition, 32-bit MCUs are capable of doing more work than 8-bit MCUs in a given time since they can more data bits per clock as well as achieve superior code density. As a result, a 32-bit processor can finish a given task in less time and drop back into a low power mode faster to improve the overall power consumption compared to an 8-bit processor.
A 32-bit MCU can process instructions quickly, enabling CPUs to wake up from a low power sleep mode, crunch and transmit data, and go back to sleep as soon as possible. One such example is shown in Figures 1 and 2 where the average power consumption is better for 32-bit MCU as compared to an 8-bit MCU.
Figure 1: 32-Bit MCU example for Average Power Consumption
Figure 2: 8-Bit MCU example for Average Power Consumption
Driving bus lines requires the bus capacitance to be charged and discharged. Thus, the more bus activity that is required, the more power that will be consumed. Driving 32 lines will consume more power than 8, so clearly an 8-bit CPU has a power advantage. However, if constants larger than 8 bits are required, then multiple accesses are required. Not only do the data lines need to be charged multiple times, so do the address lines. Figure 3 shows an example of an 8-bit MCU where the address bus has to be changed 4 times to perform a 32-bit data transfer:
Figure 3: 32-bit data transfer using 8-bit CPU
In this case, the 32-bit processor will require only one access to memory (which can also be switched into low power mode more quickly) and therefore consume less power globally.
Figure 4: 32-bit data transfer using 32-bit CPU
Advancements in 32-bit MCU architectures have lead to the introduction of advanced low power modes. For example, depending upon the core, a 32-bit MCU can operate all the way down to 20 nA. These low power modes help drive a better average power consumption in 32-bit cores as compared to 8-bit cores. Tables 3 and 4 show examples of various low power modes for an 8-bit and a 32-bit MCU.
Table 3: 8-bit MCU Low power modes example
|Power Mode||Current Range (Typical)||Condition|
|Active||6.6 mA||@24MHz, 25 C, Vdd 2.7 to 5.5V|
|Low Power Mode (Sleep)||2.2 uA||CPU & peripherals OFF, except I2C Wake & POR|
|Hibernate||200 nA||Vdd = 2.7 to 3.6V @ Room T|
Table 4: 32-bit MCU Low power modes example
|Power Mode||Current Range (Typical)||Condition|
|Active||6.7 mA||@24MHz, 25 C, Vdd 1.71 to 5.5V|
|Low Power Mode (Deep Sleep)||1.3 uA||CPU & peripherals OFF, except I2C Wake & POR|
|Hibernate||150 nA||Vdd = 1.8 to 3.6V @ Room T|
|Stop||20 nA||CPU & peripherals OFF, except GPIO Wake|
As can be seen in these tables, 32-bit architectures provide many power modes to optimize power consumption at the application level.
Advance Analog and Digital Peripherals:
As the industry moves from 8- to 32-bit, OEMs are not only expecting a CPU that offers higher performance and power, but also looking for advanced analog and digital peripherals with no increase in system cost or size. These requirements have driven the industry to integrate the main controller and standalone peripheral controller into a single chip. Though requirements vary depending the specific market segment for which you design your product, the fundamental need of advanced peripherals integrated with the main controller remains the same.
Consider an example application like a modern washing machine. OEMs need to implement differentiating features like a graphical display, liquid level detection, drum vibration analysis, control of multiple motors, door locks with inductive sensors, water pump control, and advance safety features (such as voltage / current hardware monitoring) preferably all on a single chip. The demand for advanced features in high-volume applications gives chip manufacturers the incentives to integrate these features with a full range of analog, digital, and connectivity peripherals into their CPUs.
Figure 5: Home Appliances (Washing Machine) Single chip example
Figure 6 shows an example of an ARM-based MCU device suitable for controlling some of the features implemented in a washing machine.
Figure 6: An ARM based MCU example for washing machine applications
Another important industry moving from 8- to 32-bits is wearable products. Wearables typically need a CPU that can work as a main processor, is capable of interfacing with a rich set of sensors (e.g. heart rate sensors, GPS, motion sensors, and environmental sensors), has external memory, and includes a capacitive touch pad interface, audio interface, and display drivers along with support for wireless (BLE or Wi-Fi) connectivity. Figure 7a shows an example of a wearable fitness monitor and how a single chip 32-bit MCU integrates the main MCU, analog front end (AFE), digital logic, and BLE radio. These features enable a device to connect to a sensor hub via BLE, interface with multiple analog and digital sensors, and drive a PWM-based vibration motor.
Figure 7a: Wearable fitness tracker single chip example
Figure 7b: Wearable fitness tracker chip block diagram
The device internal block diagram (Figure 7b) shows the components in a Cortex-M0 device that enable it to support various wearable products such as sports and fitness monitors, game controllers, medical devices, and other sensor-based, low-power systems for IoT. The key features of devices are the core MCU to boost performance, programmable AFEs inclusive of op-amps, PGAs, comparators, filters, ADCs, programmable digital logic for custom digital peripherals, timers, counter, PWMs, and multiple interfaces (SPI, I2C and UART). This level of integration simplifies overall design, lowers cost, and increases functionality, making 32-bit architectures ideal for many of today’s applications.
In this article, we have discussed several benefits of having a 32-bit system in terms of performance, power and advanced analog, digital peripherals.
In the second article of this two-part series, we will cover how modern software tools, hardware development ecosystems, and readymade firmware stacks with code examples ease system design and development of 32-bit systems.
AN86233 – PSoC® 4 Low-Power Modes and Power Reduction Techniques
AN90114 – PSoC® 4000 Family Low-Power System Design Techniques
AN88619 – PSoC® 4 Hardware Design Considerations
AN203277 – FM 32-bit Microcontroller Family Hardware Design Considerations
AN99231 – Using Interrupts in FM0+ Family S6E1C3 Series
AN90799 – PSoC® 4 Interrupts
AN202487 – Differences Among FM0+, FM3, and FM4 32-Bit Microcontrollers
AN99218 – Multifunction Serial Interface of FM MCU
AN79953 – Getting Started with PSoC® 4
AN210985 – Getting Started with FM0+ Development
CY8CKIT-042 PSoC® 4 Pioneer Kit
Anbarasu Samiappanis a Senior Applications Manager at Cypress Semiconductor. He is managing PSoC Embedded Systems Group including Customer Technical Support and System validation functions. He is a PMI certified Project Management Professional, Gold medalist Electronics Engineering Graduate from Anna University and earned General Management credential from IIM, Bangalore. He has 19+ years industry experience. Anba can be reached at.
Jaya Kathuriaworks as an Applications Manager at Cypress Semiconductor Corporation where she is managing the Embedded Applications Group and Solutions Development using the PSoC platform. She has 11+ years of experience in Semiconductor Industry. She earned executive management credential from IIM, Bangalore and holds BS in Electronics Engineering from the Kurukshetra University. Jaya can be reached at .
8-bit vs. 32-bit MCU: Choosing the Right Microcontroller for Your PCB Design
Created: February 27, 2018
Updated: November 4, 2020
I have very bad shopping habits when it comes to electronic gadgets. Torn between buying a new laptop or upgrading my tablet to an iPad Pro, I end up purchasing both and getting an endless lecture from my fiancé.
Thankfully, I’m more decisive when choosing between 8 bit vs 32 bit microcontroller devices for my hardware design. They’re not too different in terms of cost, and one is more powerful than the other. To make the right choice, however, it’s important to understand the fundamental differences between the 8-bit vs 32-bit mcu.
8-bit vs 32-bit MCB: Microcontroller Basics
Strictly speaking, an 8 bit microcontroller processes 8-bits of data at any particular time. The number of bits used by an MCU (sometimes called bit depth or data width) tells you the size of the registers (8 bits per register), number of memory addresses (only 2^8 = 256 addresses), and the largest numbers they can process (again, 2^8 = 256 integers, or integers 0 through 255). An 8-bit microcontroller has limited addressing, but some 8-bit microcontrollers use paging, where the contents of a page register determines which onboard memory bank to use.
A 32-bit microcontroller can theoretically handle numbers reaching 2^32. They have 32-bit arithmetic logic units, registers, and bus width. In general, this means that a 32-bit can handle quadruple the amount of data, making it technically more data efficient. However, there are other differences between 8-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers that span beyond arithmetic operations.
One limitation should be obvious, which the limitation on arithmetic operations. An 8-bit microcontroller would normally only allow arithmetic operations that output numbers ranging from 0 to 255 (or from -127 to 128), although a larger number can be shared between two threads. This introduces some programming complexity as threading does not happen automatically at the hardware level.
In general, using a microcontroller with a larger data width allows computation with larger numbers. A 32-bit microcontroller can handle unsigned numbers from 0 to 4,294,967,295 (I’ll let the reader figure out the range for signed numbers!). If you use a high level programming language like C, or a proprietary IDE (e.g., AtmelStudio), you should have access to a library that provides support for larger numbers or the use of scientific notation.
Form Factor in 8, 16, and 32-bit Microcontrollers
If it sounds like a 32-bit microcontroller will always sit in a larger package than an 8-bit microcontroller, this is not always true. Some 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit microcontrollers have the same form factor (e.g., Microchip offers a series of microcontrollers with different bit widths that all come in TQFP-64 packages). 8-bit microcontrollers come in DIP packages, as seen on popular Arduino boards.
Embedded Software and Memory Usage
At the software level, the data types used in your code will also determine which type of microcontroller to use. For example, an unsigned integer declared in an 8-bit microcontroller will only consume 1 byte. The same variable in a 32-bit microcontroller consumes 4 bytes of data. You might say “wait, a 32 bit MCU has 16 million times as many addresses, what do we care if it uses 4 bytes?” The maximum number of available unique addresses says nothing about the actual amount of memory placed on a microcontroller. On-chip memory is usually at the KB level, so the amount of data required in your code matters.
Deciding between an 8-bit vs 32-bit microcontroller involves more than the data width alone. Considering the major differences between 8-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers will help you make the best decision for your design.
Speed and Memory
One of the primary advantages of a 32-bit microcontroller over an 8-bit microcontroller is its superior processing speed. A typical 8-bit microcontroller usually runs at 8 Mhz while a 32-bit microcontroller can be clocked up to hundreds of Mhz. You might not notice the embedded data processing speed difference if you’re using the microcontroller to turn on a mechanical relay; however, it quickly becomes obvious when you’re running applications that require heavy data processing applications. For example, a door access controller that processes thousands of transactions per day requires a 32-bit microcontroller processor.
8-bit microcontrollers are cheap and easy to work with. In fact, they are still very popular after four decades in many applications. But if you’re working on a product that requires a huge internal Random Access Memory (RAM), then you may have to replace the 8-bit with a 32-bit. 32-bit microcontrollers often have 8 times more RAM than their 8-bit peers. If you need to a huge buffer to store audio data, then a 32 pin microcontroller is the better processor application option.
The basics of embedded system design involve creating a list of required peripherals based on project requirements. If you require Ethernet, Universal Serial Bus (USB Stack), multiple universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter devices (UARTS), and a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, an 8-bit microcontroller would be insufficient. You might have to consider adding peripheral chips, which may cost more than a 32-bit microcontroller alone.
Generally, 32-bit microcontrollers are feature-packed compared to 8-bit microcontrollers. With superior processing speed, a 32-bit microcontroller can handle multiple peripherals efficiently. However, bear in mind that 32-bit microcontrollers consume more power, especially when all embedded systems and peripherals are turned on.
Hardware Design and Learning Curve
It’s fair to say that a PCB with a 32-bit microcontroller, which usually has over 100 pins, is more complex than an 8-bit one, which rarely exceeds 30. Assembly wise, soldering a SOIC package is definitely easier than a Quad Flat Package (QFP) or a Ball Grid Array (BGA) package. There are also fewer quality issues with wider pitches on a SOIC package. If an 8-bit microcontroller device is sufficient for your project, do not choose a 32 pin microcontroller. Otherwise, use pre-built footprints in PCB design software to minimize your design time.
When you search programming tutorials for microcontrollers, you’ll find that most tutorials stick to 8-bits microcontroller like 8051 or Arduino, a popular 8-bit based microcontroller board. This is because it is easier to get started with an 8-bit microcontroller. A 32-bit microcontroller has a more complex architecture and demands a longer time for familiarization. If you’re creating a simple code production counter, it’s not cost-efficient to ask the firmware engineer to explore microcontrollers for a week when he can set up the entire firmware for much cheaper using an 8-bit microcontroller.
32-bit Microcontroller Applications
There are plenty of applications for a 32-bit microcontroller, but this should be a discussion regarding when not to use a 32-bit microcontroller. In general, any application that requires computations that inevitably involve large numbers and that must be calculated faster should use a 16-bit or 32-bit microcontroller. Some example operations include FFT calculations, image processing, high quality audio or video, and edge computing applications. Some memory and processing intensive tasks involving machine learning or AI are better implemented with something more powerful, such as an ARM MCU or a single-board computer.
If you need to gather measurements of analog signals, a 32-bit microcontroller is not necessarily better than an 8-bit microcontroller. The bit depth quoted for a microcontroller is not equivalent to the bit depth of the built-in analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Commercially available microcontrollers will include an onboard ADC that reaches 8 bit, 10 bit, 12 bit, or 16-bit rates.
For mobile applications, a 32-bit microcontroller will provide more intense computation at the expense of higher power consumption. It's possible to use a 32-bit microcontroller to finish important computations faster and then put the CPU in sleep mode for a longer period of time. However, this does not mean a 32-bit microcontroller is more power efficient. An 8-bit microcontroller will generally provide longer battery life and have a better balance of peripheral features than similar 32-bit devices.
Choose the Best MCU for Your PCB Design
To choose the best microcontroller for your PCB design while minimizing time and overall cost, it is necessary to carefully assess the key advantages and disadvantages of 8-bit vs 32-bit mcu. By taking design requirements like speed, complexity, peripherals, and flash memory into consideration, you can minimize decision paralysis as well as potential setbacks when choosing the best microcontroller for your design.
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Usually, 32bit MPUs are often faster due to a higher frequency, but also due to their capabilities or some 'tricks' they can do.
As said by @tcrosley, a 32bit MCU can add two 32bit integers in one go, while an 8bit MCU will have to to this byte by byte. Floating point numbers need at least 16 bit and their math is more complex, which means lots of work for the 8bit MCU. A 32bit MCU may do the math in hardware, so once again, in one go. One of the tricks may be to do four additions of 8bit variables at once. Load four 8bit values into the register, and add 8bit values to each of them.
But that's not all.
Also have a careful look at the hardware periphery, which is not necessarily more powerful on 32bit MCUs!
At my university, we built an oscilloscope consisting of a PIC18F2550 (8bit, 10bit ADC, USB), an opamp to realize several voltage ranges and some caps & resistors. This was meant as very simple, very cheap oscilloscope for schools with a sample rate of... I guess it was about 50khz. Transfer was done via CDC for high compability.
When microchip came up with its PIC32 MCUs it looked promising. Price was almost the same, 120MInstructions/s instead of 12, high speed USB instead of full speed. The last point was interesting because throughput was the limiting factor of the PIC18, and microchips benchmarks showed a remarkable higher USB throughput.
Finally, it turned out that the PIC18 did all the USB stuff in hardware, while the PI32 seems to do more in software - as soon as the PIC32 gets more work to do, the throughput dropped. Hence, we could not realize a faster oscilloscope with PIC32.
(I wasn't involved in this - so I don't know the details)
What is an 8 bit Microcontroller?
An 8 bit microcontroller is a self-contained system with memory, a processor and peripherals that can be used as an embedded system. Most programmable 8 bit microcontrollers that are in use today are embedded in other machinery or consumer products including telephones, automobiles, household appliances as well as peripherals for computer systems. Therefore, another name for an 8 bit microcontroller is "embedded 8 bit controller." Some embedded systems are very sophisticated while others have minimal requirements for memory and programming length with a low software complexity. Input and output devices include relays, solenoids, switches, LCD displays and sensors for data such as temperature, light level or humidity.
Types of 8 bit Microcontrollers
There are many different kinds of programmable 8 bit microcontrollers and at Future Electronics we stock many of the most common types categorized by Flash size, RAM size, number of input/output lines, packaging type, speed and supply voltage. The parametric filters on our website can help refine your search results depending on the specifications required. The most common sizes for RAM are 128 B, 192 B, 256 B, 368 B, 512 B, 768 B, 1 kB and 2 kB. We also carry 8 bit microcontrollers with RAM sizes up to 768 kB. Flash sizes can range from 8 B to 4 MB, with the most common sizes being 1.75 kB, 3.5 kB, 4 kB, 8 kB, 16 kB, 32 kB and 64 kB.
Programmable microcontrollers contain general purpose input/output pins, and their number can vary. The pins can be configured by software to an input or an output state. When these pins are configured to an input state, they can be used to read sensors or external signals. When they are configured to the output state, these pins can drive external devices such as LED displays and motors.
8 bit Microcontrollers From Future Electronics
Future Electronics has a full selection of programmable 8 bit microcontrollers, including pic, wireless, low power, LCD and USB microcontrollers from several manufacturers. Simply choose from the 8 bit microcontroller technical attributes below and your search results will quickly be narrowed to match your specific 8 bit microcontroller application needs.
If you have a preferred brand, we deal with several manufacturers. You can easily refine your 8 bit microcontroller product search results by clicking your preferred programmable 8 bit microcontroller brand below from our list of manufacturers.
Applications for 8 bit Microcontrollers:
Programmable 8 bit microcontrollers are designed to be used for embedded applications, contrary to microprocessors that can be found in PCs. 8 bit microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled devices including implantable medical devices, power tools, toys, office machines, engine control systems, remote controls, appliances as well as other types of embedded systems.
Choosing the Right 8 bit Microcontroller:
When you are looking for the right 8 bit microcontrollers, with the FutureElectronics.com parametric search, you can filter the results by various attributes: by RAM size (128 B, 256 B, 512 B, 768 B, 1 kB, …), Flash size (4 kB, 8 kB, 16 kB, 32 kB, 64 kB …), number of input lines (from 2 to 100 lines), speed (8 MHz, 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 48 MHz, 50 GHz, …) and supply voltage (up to 64V) to name a few. You will be able to find the right 8 bit pic, wireless, low power, LCD or USB microcontrollers using these filters.8 bit Microcontrollers in Production Ready Packaging or R&D QuantitiesIf the quantity of 8 bit microcontrollers required is less than a full reel, we offer customers many of our programmable 8 bit microcontroller products in tube, tray or individual quantities that will avoid unneeded surplus.In addition, Future Electronics offers clients a unique bonded inventory program that is designed to eliminate potential problems that may arise from an unpredictable supply of products containing raw metals and products with erratic or long lead times. Talk with your nearest Future Electronics branch and find out more on how you and your company can avoid possible shortages.
Future Electronics also offers clients a unique bonded inventory program designed in order to eliminate potential problems that can arise from an unpredictable supply of products that could contain raw metals and products with erratic or long lead times. Talk with your nearest Future Electronics branch and find out more on how you and your company can avoid possible shortag
Bit mcus 8
8-Bit Legacy MCUs
Low-Cost Single Chip Microcontrollers
Low-Cost, Low-Power, EPROM
Low-Cost, 4-channel, 8-Bit Analog-to-digital Converter
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit Microcontroller
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit Microcontroller with EEPROM
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit Microcontroller
Low-Cost, High-Performance, Upward-Compatible 8-Bit Microcontroller
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Low-Cost, High-Performance General Purpose G MCUs
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit General Purpose with CAN GZ MCUs
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit General Purpose MCUs
Low cost, High-Performance MCUs
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit Microcontroller, Customer-Specified Integrated Circuit (CSIC)
Low-Cost, High-Performance 8-Bit EEPROM Emulation LJ and LK MCUs
Low-Cost, High-Performance General Purpose MR MCUs
Low-Cost, High-Performance Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
High-Performance Monolithic Intelligent Motor Controller
CPU with High-Performance, On-Chip Peripherals
CPU with High-Performance, On-Chip Peripherals
CPU with High-Performance, On-Chip Peripherals
CPU with High-Performance, On-Chip Peripherals
CPU with High-Performance, On-Chip Peripherals
An Integrated Single-Package Solution with a High Performance HC08 MCU
A Highly Integrated Single-Package Solution
An Integrated Single-Package Solution with a SMARTMOS® Analog Control IC
An Integrated Single-Package Solution with Integrated Vreg, Stepper, LIN Phy
General Purpose 8-Bit Devices for the Ultra-low-end Market
An Integrated Peripheral Set That Including a Highly Efficient RS08 Core
LCD Drivers are Highly Integrated but Extremely Cost-Effective
Intended for Small Appliances, Medical Equipment and Industrial and Multi-Market Applications
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