Tin molecular weight

Tin molecular weight DEFAULT

Computing molar mass (molar weight)

To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound enter its formula and click 'Compute'. In chemical formula you may use:
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  • parantesis () or brackets [].
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Examples of molar mass computations: NaCl, Ca(OH)2, K4[Fe(CN)6], CuSO4*5H2O, water, nitric acid, potassium permanganate, ethanol, fructose.

Molar mass calculator also displays common compound name, Hill formula, elemental composition, mass percent composition, atomic percent compositions and allows to convert from weight to number of moles and vice versa.

Computing molecular weight (molecular mass)

To calculate molecular weight of a chemical compound enter it's formula, specify its isotope mass number after each element in square brackets.
Examples of molecular weight computations: C[14]O[16]2, S[34]O[16]2.

Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight

  • Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
  • Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Weights of atoms and isotopes are from NIST article.

Related: Molecular weights of amino acids
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Tin powder, -325 mesh, 99.8% (metals basis), Thermo Scientific™

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Apparent density 3.2g/cm3

39.20 € - 322.00 €

  • Tin powder, -325 mesh, 99.8% (metals basis), Thermo Scientific™: Metals Salts and Inorganics
  • Tin powder, -325 mesh, 99.8% (metals basis), Thermo Scientific™: Metals Salts and Inorganics

Chemical Identifiers

CAS7440-31-5
Molecular FormulaSn
Molecular Weight (g/mol)118.71
MDL NumberMFCD00133862
InChI KeyATJFFYVFTNAWJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonympowder, stannum, metallic, tin, elemental, wang, zinn, flake, tin, metal, silver matt powder, zinn german
PubChem CID5352426
ChEBICHEBI:32990
IUPAC Nametin
SMILES[Sn]
View More Specs

Products 3DescriptionSpecifications

Chemical Identifiers

7440-31-5
118.71
ATJFFYVFTNAWJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
5352426
tin
Sn
MFCD00133862
powder, stannum, metallic, tin, elemental, wang, zinn, flake, tin, metal, silver matt powder, zinn german
CHEBI:32990
[Sn]

Specifications

Tin
7440-31-5
99.8% (Metals basis)
MFCD00133862
powder, stannum, metallic, tin, elemental, wang, zinn, flake, tin, metal, silver matt powder, zinn german
[Sn]
Odorless
5352426
Powder, Apparent density 3.2g/cm
100g
Gray powder
Sn
-325 Mesh
ATJFFYVFTNAWJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
tin
118.71
CHEBI:32990
Gray
SDS Product Certifications
Sours: https://www.fishersci.at/shop/products/tin-powder-325-mesh-99-8-metals-basis-alfa-aesar-3/p-4824987
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Tin Granules


SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION

Product Name: Tin Granules

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. SN-M-02-GR , SN-M-03-GR , SN-M-04-GR , SN-M-05-GR , SN-M-06-GR

CAS #: 7440-31-5

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
10884 Weyburn Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America: +1 800-424-9300
International: +1 703-527-3887


SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Eye irritation(Category 2A), H319
Specific target organ toxicity -single exposure(Category 3),
Respiratory system, H335
For the full text of the H-Statements mentioned in this Section, see Section 16.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Pictogram

Exclamation Mark - GHS07

Signal word
Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H319
Causes serious eye irritation.
H335
May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary statement(s)
P261
Avoid breathing dust/ fume/ gas/ mist/ vapors/ spray.
P264
Wash skin thoroughly after handling.
P271
Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P280
Wear eye protection/ face protection.
P304 + P340 + P312
IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/ physician if you feel unwell.
P305 + P351 + P338
IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P337 + P313
If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/ attention.
P403 + P233
Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P405
Store locked up.
P501
Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Hazards not otherwise classified (HNOC) or not covered by GHS-none


SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Substances
Formula: Sn
Molecular weight: 118.71 g/mol
CAS-No.: 7440-31-5
EC-No.: 231-141-8


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Description of first aid measures
General advice
Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.
If inhaled
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician.
In case of skin contact
Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician.
In case of eye contact
Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.
If swallowed
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician.
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
The most important known symptoms and effects are described in the labelling (see section 2) and/or in section 11
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No data available


SECTION 5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES

Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing media
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
Tin/tin oxides
Advice for firefighters
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.
Further information
No data available


SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapors, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust.
For personal protection see section 8.
Environmental precautions
Do not let product enter drains.
Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up
Pick up and arrange disposal without creating dust. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.
Reference to other sections
For disposal see section 13.


SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Precautions for safe handling
Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols.
Further processing of solid materials may result in the formation of combustible dusts. The potential for combustible dust formation should be taken into consideration before additional processing occurs.
Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed.
For precautions see section 2.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.
Air and moisture sensitive.
Handle and store under inert gas.
Keep in a dry place.
Storage class (TRGS 510): Non Combustible Solids
Specific end use(s)
Apart from the uses mentioned in section 1 no other specific uses are stipulated


SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Exposure controls
Appropriate engineering controls
Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.
Personal protective equipment
Eye/face protection
Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166 Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).
Skin protection
Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique (without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands.
Body Protection
impervious clothing, The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.
Respiratory protection
For nuisance exposures use type P95 (US) or type P1 (EU EN 143) particle respirator.For higher level protection use type OV/AG/P99 (US) or type ABEK-P2 (EU EN 143) respirator cartridges. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or CEN (EU).
Control of environmental exposure
Do not let product enter drains.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Information on basic physical and chemical properties
Appearance
Form: powder
Odor
No data available
Odor Threshold
No data available
pH
No data available
Melting point/freezing point
Melting point/range: 231.9 °C (449.4 °F)-lit.
Initial boiling point and boiling range
2,270 °C (4,118 °F)-lit.
Flash point
N/A
Evaporation rate
No data available
Flammability (solid, gas)
No data available
Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits
Lower explosion limit: > 99.99 %(V)
Vapor pressure
No data available
Vapor density
No data available
Relative density
7.31 g/mL at 25 °C (77 °F)
Water solubility
No data available
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water
No data available
Auto-ignition temperature
No data available
Decomposition temperature
No data available
Viscosity
No data available
Explosive properties
No data available
Oxidizing properties
No data available
Other safety information
No data available


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Reactivity
No data available
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No data available
Conditions to avoid
No data available
Incompatible materials
Strong oxidizing agents, Sulphur compounds, Strong bases, Halogens, Do not store near acids.
Hazardous decomposition products
Other decomposition products-No data available
In the event of fire: see section 5


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity
No data available
Dermal: No data available
No data available
Skin corrosion/irritation
No data available
Serious eye damage/eye irritation
No data available
Respiratory or skin sensitisation
No data available
Germ cell mutagenicity
No data available
Carcinogenicity
Carcinogenicity-Rat-Implant
Tumorigenic:Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria. Tumorigenic:Tumors at site or application.
Carcinogenicity-Mouse-Implant
Tumorigenic:Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria. Tumorigenic:Tumors at site or application.
IARC:
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as
probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC.
ACGIH:
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a
carcinogen or potential carcinogen by ACGIH.
NTP:
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a
known or anticipated carcinogen by NTP.
OSHA:
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a
carcinogen or potential carcinogen by OSHA.
Reproductive toxicity
No data available
No data available
Specific target organ toxicity -single exposure
Inhalation-May cause respiratory irritation.
Specific target organ toxicity -repeated exposure
No data available
Aspiration hazard
No data available
Additional Information
RTECS: XP7320000
To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.


SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicity
Persistence and degradability:
No data available
Bioaccumulative potential:
No data available
Mobility in soil:
No data available
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment:
PBT/vPvB assessment not available as chemical safety assessment not required/not conducted
Other adverse effects
No data available


SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Waste treatment methods
Product
Offer surplus and non-recyclable solutions to a licensed disposal company.
Contaminated packaging
Dispose of as unused product.


SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

DOT (US)
Not dangerous goods
IMDG
Not dangerous goods
IATA
Not dangerous goods


SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

SARA 302 Components
No chemicals in this material are subject to the reporting requirements of SARA Title III, Section 302.
SARA 313 Components
This material does not contain any chemical components with known CAS numbers that exceed the threshold (De Minimis) reporting levels established by SARA Title III, Section 313.
Massachusetts Right To Know Components
Tin
CAS-No.
7440-31-5
Revision Date
1994-04-01
Pennsylvania Right To Know Components
Tin
CAS-No.
7440-31-5
Revision Date
1994-04-01
New Jersey Right To Know Components
Tin
CAS-No.
7440-31-5
Revision Date
1994-04-01
California Prop. 65 Components
This product does not contain any chemicals known to State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or any other reproductive harm.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2021 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

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How To Calculate The Molar Mass of a Compound - Quick \u0026 Easy!

Tin

chemical element with atomic number 50

This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Tin (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with Titanium nitride.

Chemical element, symbol Sn and atomic number 50

Sn-Alpha-Beta.jpg
Allotropesalpha, α (gray); beta, β (white)
Appearancesilvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Sn)118.710(7)[1]
Atomic number(Z)50
Groupgroup 14 (carbon group)
Periodperiod 5
Block p-block
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Phaseat STPsolid
Melting point505.08 K ​(231.93 °C, ​449.47 °F)
Boiling point2875 K ​(2602 °C, ​4716 °F)
Density (near r.t.)white, β: 7.265 g/cm3
gray, α: 5.769 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.99 g/cm3
Heat of fusionwhite, β: 7.03 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporizationwhite, β: 296.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacitywhite, β: 27.112 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0,[2] +1,[3]+2, +3,[4]+4 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.96
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 708.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1411.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2943.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius139±4 pm
Van der Waals radius217 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of tin
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure ​body-centered tetragonal
Body-centered tetragonal crystal structure for tin

white (β)
Crystal structure ​face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for tin

gray (α)
Speed of sound thin rod2730 m/s (at r.t.) (rolled)
Thermal expansion22.0 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity66.8 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity115 nΩ⋅m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderinggray: diamagnetic[5]
white (β): paramagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility(white) +3.1×10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[6]
Young's modulus50 GPa
Shear modulus18 GPa
Bulk modulus58 GPa
Poisson ratio0.36
Brinell hardness50–440 MPa
CAS Number7440-31-5
Discoveryaround 35th century BC
Symbol"Sn": from Latin stannum
Category Category: Tin
| references

Tin is a chemical element with the symbolSn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue.

Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force.[7] When a bar of tin is bent, the so-called “tin cry” can be heard as a result of twinning in tin crystals; this trait is shared by indium, cadmium, zinc, and frozen mercury.

Pure tin after solidifying presents a mirror-like appearance similar to most metals. In most tin alloys (such as pewter) the metal solidifies with a dull gray color.

Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements. It is obtained chiefly from the mineralcassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO
2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element on Earth and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons.

It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal; at low temperatures it is less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air.

The first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1⁄8 tin and 7⁄8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony, and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin / lead soft solders, which are typically 60% or more tin, and in the manufacture of transparent, electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronic applications. Another large application is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is widely used for food packaging as tin cans. Some organotin compounds can be extremely toxic.

Characteristics[edit]

Physical[edit]

Tin is a soft, malleable, ductile and highly crystalline silvery-white metal. When a bar of tin is bent a crackling sound known as the "tin cry" can be heard from the twinning of the crystals.[8] Tin melts at about 232 °C (450 °F) the lowest in group 14. The melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C (351.1 °F) for 11 nm particles.[9][10]

External video
video iconβ–α transition of tin at −40 °C (time lapse; one second of the video is one hour in real time

β-tin, the metallic form or white tin, has BCT structure and is stable at and above room temperature and is malleable. α-tin, the nonmetallic form or gray tin, is stable below 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) and is brittle. α-tin has a diamond cubiccrystal structure, similar to diamond, silicon or germanium. α-tin has no metallic properties, because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely. α-tin is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than specialized semiconductor applications.[8] γ-tin and σ-tin exist at temperatures above 161 °C (322 °F)  and pressures above several GPa.[11]

In cold conditions β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as "tin pest" or "tin disease".[citation needed] Some unverifiable sources also say that, during Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812, the temperatures became so cold that the tin buttons on the soldiers' uniforms disintegrated over time, contributing to the defeat of the Grande Armée,[12] a persistent legend.[13][14][15]

The α-β transformation temperature is 13.2 °C (55.8 °F), but impurities (e.g. Al, Zn, etc.) lower it well below 0 °C (32 °F). With the addition of antimony or bismuth the transformation might not occur at all, increasing durability.[16]

Commercial grades of tin (99.8% tin content) resist transformation because of the inhibiting effect of small amounts of bismuth, antimony, lead, and silver present as impurities. Alloying elements such as copper, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and silver increase the hardness of tin.[citation needed] Tin easily forms hard, brittle intermetallic phases that are typically undesirable. It does not mix into a solution with most metals and elements so tin does not have much solid solubility. Tin mixes well with bismuth, gallium, lead, thallium and zinc forming simple eutectic systems.[16]

Tin becomes a superconductor below 3.72 K[17] and was one of the first superconductors to be studied.[18] The Meissner effect, one of the characteristic features of superconductors, was first discovered in superconducting tin crystals.[18]

Chemical[edit]

Tin resists corrosion from water, but can be corroded by acids and alkalis. Tin can be highly polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals,[8] a protective oxide (passivation) layer prevents further oxidation.[19] Tin acts as a catalyst triggering a chemical reaction of a solution containing oxygen and helps to increase the speed of the chemical reaction that results.[citation needed]

Isotopes[edit]

Main article: Isotopes of tin

Tin has ten stable isotopes, the greatest number of any element. The isotopes of tin have atomic masses of 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, and 124. 120Sn makes up almost a third of all isotopes; 118Sn, and 116Sn are also common, while 115Sn is the least common stable isotope. The isotopes with even mass numbers have no nuclear spin, while those with odd mass numbers have a spin of +1/2.[citation needed] Tin is among the easiest elements to detect and analyze by NMR spectroscopy which relies on molecular weight and its chemical shifts are referenced against SnMe
4.[notes 1][20] The large number of stable isotopes is thought to be a direct result of tin having the atomic number 50, a "magic number" in nuclear physics.

Tin has 31 unstable isotopes, ranging in mass number from 99 to 139.[citation needed] The unstable tin isotopes have a half-life of less than a year except 126Sn which has a half-life of 230,000 years.[citation needed]100Sn and 132Sn are two of the few nuclides with a "doubly magic" nucleus which despite being unstable, as they have very uneven neutron–proton ratios, are the endpoints beyond which tin isotopes lighter than 100Sn and heavier than 132Sn are much less stable.[21] Another 30 metastable isomers have been identified for tin isotopes between 111 and 131, the most stable being 121mSn, with a half-life of 43.9 years.[22]

The relative differences in the number of tin's stable isotopes can be explained by how they are formed during stellar nucleosynthesis. 116Sn through 120Sn are formed in the s-process (slow neutron capture) in most stars which leads to them being the most common tin isotopes, while 122Sn and 124Sn are only formed in the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernovae and are less common. Tin isotopes 117Sn through 120Sn are also produced in the r-process.[citation needed]112Sn, 114Sn, and 115Sn, cannot be made in significant amounts in the s- or r-processes and are among the p-nuclei whose origins are not well understood. Some ideas about for their formation include proton capture and photodisintegration, 115Sn might be partially produced in the s-process both directly and as the daughter of long-lived 115In.[23]

Etymology[edit]

The word tin is shared among Germanic languages and can be traced back to reconstructedProto-Germanic *tin-om; cognates include GermanZinn, Swedishtenn and Dutchtin. It is not found in other branches of Indo-European, except by borrowing from Germanic (e.g., Irishtinne from English).[24][25]

The Latin name stannum originally meant an alloy of silver and lead, and came to mean 'tin' in the 4th century[26]—the earlier Latin word for it was plumbum candidum, or "white lead". Stannum apparently came from an earlier stāgnum (meaning the same substance),[24] the origin of the Romance and Celtic terms for tin.[24][27] The origin of stannum/stāgnum is unknown; it may be pre-Indo-European.[28]

The Meyers Konversations-Lexikon suggests instead that stannum came from Cornishstean, and is evidence that Cornwall in the first centuries AD was the main source of tin.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Main article: Tin sources and trade in ancient times

Ceremonial giant bronze dirkof the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.

Tin extraction and use can be dated to the beginnings of the Bronze Age around 3000 BC, when it was observed that copper objects formed of polymetallicores with different metal contents had different physical properties.[29] The earliest bronze objects had a tin or arsenic content of less than 2% and are believed to be the result of unintentional alloying due to trace metal content in the copper ore.[30] The addition of a second metal to copper increases its hardness, lowers the melting temperature, and improves the casting process by producing a more fluid melt that cools to a denser, less spongy metal.[30] This was an important innovation that allowed for the much more complex shapes cast in closed molds of the Bronze Age. Arsenical bronze objects appear first in the Near East where arsenic is commonly found with copper ore, but the health risks were quickly realized and the quest for sources of the much less hazardous tin ores began early in the Bronze Age.[31] This created the demand for rare tin metal and formed a trade network that linked the distant sources of tin to the markets of Bronze Age cultures.[citation needed]

Cassiterite (SnO
2), the oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin. Other tin ores are less common sulfides such as stannite that require a more involved smelting process. Cassiterite often accumulates in alluvial channels as placer deposits because it is harder, heavier, and more chemically resistant than the accompanying granite.[30] Cassiterite is usually black or dark in color, and these deposits can be easily seen in river banks. Alluvial (placer) deposits may incidentally have been collected and separated by methods similar to gold panning.[32]

Compounds and chemistry[edit]

See also: Category:Tin compounds

In the great majority of its compounds, tin has the oxidation state II or IV.

Inorganic compounds[edit]

Halide compounds are known for both oxidation states. For Sn(IV), all four halides are well known: SnF4, SnCl4, SnBr4, and SnI4. The three heavier members are volatile molecular compounds, whereas the tetrafluoride is polymeric. All four halides are known for Sn(II) also: SnF2, SnCl
2, SnBr2, and SnI2. All are polymeric solids. Of these eight compounds, only the iodides are colored.[33]

Tin(II) chloride (also known as stannous chloride) is the most important commercial tin halide. Illustrating the routes to such compounds, chlorine reacts with tin metal to give SnCl4 whereas the reaction of hydrochloric acid and tin produces SnCl
2 and hydrogen gas. Alternatively SnCl4 and Sn combine to stannous chloride by a process called comproportionation:[34]

SnCl4 + Sn → 2 SnCl
2

Tin can form many oxides, sulfides, and other chalcogenide derivatives. The dioxide Sn)
2 (cassiterite) forms when tin is heated in the presence of air.[33]Sn)
2 is amphoteric, which means that it dissolves in both acidic and basic solutions.[35] Stannates with the structure [Sn(OH)
6]2−, like K
2[Sn(OH)
6], are also known, though the free stannic acid H
2[Sn(OH)
6] is unknown.

Sulfides of tin exist in both the +2 and +4 oxidation states: tin(II) sulfide and tin(IV) sulfide (mosaic gold).

Hydrides[edit]

Stannane (SnH
4), with tin in the +4 oxidation state, is unstable. Organotin hydrides are however well known, e.g. tributyltin hydride (Sn(C4H9)3H).[8] These compound release transient tributyl tin radicals, which are rare examples of compounds of tin(III).[37]

Organotin compounds[edit]

Organotin compounds, sometimes called stannanes, are chemical compounds with tin–carbon bonds.[38] Of the tin compounds, the organic derivatives are commercially the most useful.[39] Some organotin compounds are highly toxic and have been used as biocides. The first organotin compound to be reported was diethyltin diiodide ((C2H5)2SnI2), reported by Edward Frankland in 1849.[40]

Most organotin compounds are colorless liquids or solids that are stable to air and water. They adopt tetrahedral geometry. Tetraalkyl- and tetraaryltin compounds can be prepared using Grignard reagents:[39]

SnCl
4 + 4 RMgBr → R
4Sn + 4 MgBrCl

The mixed halide-alkyls, which are more common and more important commercially than the tetraorgano derivatives, are prepared by redistribution reactions:

SnCl
4 + R
4Sn → 2 SnCl
2R2

Divalent organotin compounds are uncommon, although more common than related divalent organogermanium and organosilicon compounds. The greater stabilization enjoyed by Sn(II) is attributed to the "inert pair effect". Organotin(II) compounds include both stannylenes (formula: R2Sn, as seen for singlet carbenes) and distannylenes (R4Sn2), which are roughly equivalent to alkenes. Both classes exhibit unusual reactions.[41]

Occurrence[edit]

See also: Category:Tin minerals

Sample of cassiterite, the main oreof tin

Tin is generated via the long s-process in low-to-medium mass stars (with masses of 0.6 to 10 times that of the Sun), and finally by beta decay of the heavy isotopes of indium.[42]

Tin is the 49th most abundant element in Earth's crust, representing 2 ppm compared with 75 ppm for zinc, 50 ppm for copper, and 14 ppm for lead.[43]

Tin does not occur as the native element but must be extracted from various ores. Cassiterite (SnO
2) is the only commercially important source of tin, although small quantities of tin are recovered from complex sulfides such as stannite, cylindrite, franckeite, canfieldite, and teallite. Minerals with tin are almost always associated with granite rock, usually at a level of 1% tin oxide content.[44]

Because of the higher specific gravity of tin dioxide, about 80% of mined tin is from secondary deposits found downstream from the primary lodes. Tin is often recovered from granules washed downstream in the past and deposited in valleys or the sea. The most economical ways of mining tin are by dredging, hydraulicking, or open pits. Most of the world's tin is produced from placer deposits, which can contain as little as 0.015% tin.[45]

CountryReserves
 China1,500,000
 Malaysia250,000
 Peru310,000
 Indonesia800,000
 Brazil590,000
 Bolivia400,000
 Russia350,000
 Australia180,000
 Thailand170,000
  Other 180,000
  Total 4,800,000

About 253,000 tonnes of tin were mined in 2011, mostly in China (110,000 t), Indonesia (51,000 t), Peru (34,600 t), Bolivia (20,700 t) and Brazil (12,000 t).[46] Estimates of tin production have historically varied with the market and mining technology. It is estimated that, at current consumption rates and technologies, the Earth will run out of mine-able tin in 40 years.[47] In 2006 Lester Brown suggested tin could run out within 20 years based on conservative estimates of 2% annual growth.[48]

Year Million tonnes
1965 4,265
1970 3,930
1975 9,060
1980 9,100
1985 3,060
1990 7,100
2000 7,100[46]
2010 5,200[46]

Scrap tin is an important source of the metal. Recovery of tin through recycling is increasing rapidly. Whereas the United States has neither mined (since 1993) nor smelted (since 1989) tin , it was the largest secondary producer, recycling nearly 14,000 tonnes in 2006.[46]

New deposits are reported in Mongolia,[49] and in 2009, new deposits of tin were discovered in Colombia.[50]

Production[edit]

Tin is produced by carbothermic reduction of the oxide ore with carbon or coke. Both reverberatory furnace and electric furnace can be used.[51][52][53]

Mining and smelting[edit]

Main article: Tin mining

Industry[edit]

The ten largest companies produced most of the world's tin in 2007.

Most of the world's tin is traded on LME, from 8 countries, under 17 brands.[54]

CompanyPolity200620072017[56]2006-2017
% change
Yunnan TinChina 52,33961,12974,50042.3
PT Timah Indonesia 44,68958,32530,200-32.4
Malaysia Smelting Corp Malaysia 22,85025,47127,20019.0
Yunnan Chengfeng China 21,76518,00026,80023.1
MinsurPeru 40,97735,94018,000-56.1
EM Vinto Bolivia 11,8049,44812,6006.7
Guangxi China Tin China //11,500/
Thaisarco Thailand 27,82819,82610,600-61.9
Metallo-ChimiqueBelgium 8,0498,3729,70020.5
Gejiu Zi Li China //8,700/

International Tin Council was established in 1947 to control the price of tin. It collapsed in 1985. In 1984, Association of Tin Producing Countries was created, with Australia, Bolivia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Thailand, and Zaire as members.[57]

Price and exchanges[edit]

World production and price (US exchange) of tin.

Tin is unique among mineral commodities because of the complex agreements between producer countries and consumer countries dating back to 1921. Earlier agreements tended to be somewhat informal and led to the "First International Tin Agreement" in 1956, the first of a series that effectively collapsed in 1985. Through these agreements, the International Tin Council (ITC) had a considerable effect on tin prices. ITC supported the price of tin during periods of low prices by buying tin for its buffer stockpile and was able to restrain the price during periods of high prices by selling from the stockpile. This was an anti-free-market approach, designed to assure a sufficient flow of tin to consumer countries and a profit for producer countries. However, the buffer stockpile was not sufficiently large, and during most of those 29 years tin prices rose, sometimes sharply, especially from 1973 through 1980 when rampant inflation plagued many world economies.[58]

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the U.S. reduced its strategic tin stockpile, partly to take advantage of historically high tin prices. The 1981–82 recession damaged the tin industry. Tin consumption declined dramatically. ITC was able to avoid truly steep declines through accelerated buying for its buffer stockpile; this activity required extensive borrowing. ITC continued to borrow until late 1985 when it reached its credit limit. Immediately, a major "tin crisis" ensued — tin was delisted from trading on the London Metal Exchange for about three years. dissolved soon afterward, and the price of tin, now in a free-market environment, fell to $4 per pound and remained around that level through the 1990s.[58] The price increased again by 2010 with a rebound in consumption following the 2007-2008 economic crisis, accompanying restocking and continued growth in consumption.[46]

London Metal Exchange (LME) is tin's principal trading site.[46] Other tin contract markets are Kuala Lumpur Tin Market (KLTM) and Indonesia Tin Exchange (INATIN).[59]

The price per kg over years:

20082009201020112012
Price18.5113.5720.4126.0521.13

Applications[edit]

World consumption of refined tin by end-use, 2006

In 2018, just under half of all tin produced was used in solder. The rest was divided between tin plating, tin chemicals, brass and bronze alloys, and niche uses.[61]

Solder[edit]

A coil of lead-free solderwire

Tin has long been used in alloys with lead as solder, in amounts of 5 to 70% w/w. Tin with lead forms a eutectic mixture at the weight proportion of 61.9% tin and 38.1% lead (the atomic proportion: 73.9% tin and 26.1% lead), with melting temperature of 183 °C (361.4 °F). Such solders are primarily used for joining pipes or electric circuits. Since the European Union Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) and Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive came into effect on 1 July 2006, the lead content in such alloys has decreased. While lead exposure is associated with serious health problems, lead-free solder is not without its challenges, including a higher melting point, and the formation of tin whiskers that cause electrical problems. Tin pest can occur in lead-free solders, leading to loss of the soldered joint. Replacement alloys are being found, but the problems of joint integrity remain.[62]

Tin plating[edit]

Tin plated metal from a can.

Tin bonds readily to iron and is used for coating lead, zinc, and steel to prevent corrosion. Tin-plated steel containers are widely used for food preservation, and this forms a large part of the market for metallic tin. A tinplate canister for preserving food was first manufactured in London in 1812.[63] Speakers of British English call them "tins", while speakers of American English call them "cans" or "tin cans". One derivation of such use is the slang term "tinnie" or "tinny", meaning "can of beer" in Australia. The tin whistle is so called because it was mass-produced first in tin-plated steel.[64][65] Copper cooking vessels such as saucepans and frying pans are frequently lined with a thin plating of tin, since the combination of acidic foods with copper can be toxic.

Specialized alloys[edit]

Artisans working with tin sheets.

Tin in combination with other elements forms a wide variety of useful alloys. Tin is most commonly alloyed with copper. Pewter is 85–99% tin;[66]bearing metal has a high percentage of tin as well.[67][68]Bronze is mostly copper with 12% tin, while the addition of phosphorus yields phosphor bronze. Bell metal is also a copper–tin alloy, containing 22% tin. Tin has sometimes been used in coinage; it once formed a single-digit percentage (usually five percent or less) of American[69] and Canadian[70] pennies. Because copper is often the major metal in such coins, sometimes including zinc, these could be called bronze, or brass alloys.

The niobium–tin compound Nb3Sn is commercially used in coils of superconducting magnets for its high critical temperature (18 K) and critical magnetic field (25 T). A superconducting magnet weighing as little as two kilograms is capable of producing the magnetic field of a conventional electromagnet weighing tons.[71]

A small percentage of tin is added to zirconium alloys for the cladding of nuclear fuel.[72]

Most metal pipes in a pipe organ are of a tin/lead alloy, with 50/50 as the most common composition. The proportion of tin in the pipe defines the pipe's tone, since tin has a desirable tonal resonance. When a tin/lead alloy cools, the lead phase solidifies first, then when the eutectic temperature is reached, the remaining liquid forms the layered tin/lead eutectic structure, which is shiny; contrast with the lead phase produces a mottled or spotted effect. This metal alloy is referred to as spotted metal. Major advantages of using tin for pipes include its appearance, workability, and resistance to corrosion.[73][74]

Optoelectronics[edit]

The oxides of indium and tin are electrically conductive and transparent, and are used to make transparent electrically conducting films with applications in optoelectronics devices such as liquid crystal displays.[75]

Other applications[edit]

A 21st-century reproduction barn lantern made of punched tin.

Punched tin-plated steel, also called pierced tin, is an artisan technique originating in central Europe for creating functional and decorative housewares. Decorative piercing designs exist in a wide variety, based on local tradition and the artisan. Punched tin lanterns are the most common application of this artisan technique. The light of a candle shining through the pierced design creates a decorative light pattern in the room where it sits. Lanterns and other punched tin articles were created in the New World from the earliest European settlement. A well-known example is the Revere lantern, named after Paul Revere.[76]

Before the modern era, in some areas of the Alps, a goat or sheep's horn would be sharpened and a tin panel would be punched out using the alphabet and numbers from one to nine. This learning tool was known appropriately as "the horn". Modern reproductions are decorated with such motifs as hearts and tulips.

In America, pie safes and food safes were in use in the days before refrigeration. These were wooden cupboards of various styles and sizes – either floor standing or hanging cupboards meant to discourage vermin and insects and to keep dust from perishable foodstuffs. These cabinets had tinplate inserts in the doors and sometimes in the sides, punched out by the homeowner, cabinetmaker, or a tinsmith in varying designs to allow for air circulation while excluding flies. Modern reproductions of these articles remain popular in North America.[77]

Window glass is most often made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass), resulting in a flat and flawless surface. This is also called the "Pilkington process".[78]

Tin is used as a negative electrode in advanced Li-ion batteries. Its application is somewhat limited by the fact that some tin surfaces[which?] catalyze decomposition of carbonate-based electrolytes used in Li-ion batteries.[79]

Tin(II) fluoride is added to some dental care products[80] as stannous fluoride (SnF2). Tin(II) fluoride can be mixed with calcium abrasives while the more common sodium fluoride gradually becomes biologically inactive in the presence of calcium compounds.[81] It has also been shown to be more effective than sodium fluoride in controlling gingivitis.[82]

Tin is used as a target to create laser-induced plasmas that act as the light source for extreme ultraviolet lithography.

Organotin compounds[edit]

Main article: Organotin chemistry

The organotin compounds are most heavily used. Worldwide industrial production probably exceeds 50,000 tonnes.[83]

PVC stabilizers[edit]

The major commercial application of organotin compounds is in the stabilization of PVC plastics. In the absence of such stabilizers, PVC would rapidly degrade under heat, light, and atmospheric oxygen, resulting in discolored, brittle products. Tin scavenges labile chloride ions (Cl), which would otherwise strip HCl from the plastic material.[84] Typical tin compounds are carboxylic acid derivatives of dibutyltin dichloride, such as the dilaurate.[85]

Biocides[edit]

Some organotin compounds are relatively toxic, with both advantages and problems. They are used for biocidal properties as fungicides, pesticides, algaecides, wood preservatives, and antifouling agents.[84]Tributyltin oxide is used as a wood preservative.[86] Tributyltin is also used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills and disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters.[87]Tributyltin was used as additive for ship paint to prevent growth of fouling organisms on ships, with use declining after organotin compounds were recognized as persistent organic pollutants with high toxicity for some marine organisms (the dog whelk, for example).[88] The EU banned the use of organotin compounds in 2003,[89] while concerns over the toxicity of these compounds to marine life and damage to the reproduction and growth of some marine species[84] (some reports describe biological effects to marine life at a concentration of 1 nanogram per liter) have led to a worldwide ban by the International Maritime Organization.[90] Many nations now restrict the use of organotin compounds to vessels greater than 25 m (82 ft) long.[84] The persistence of tributyltin in the aquatic environment is dependent upon the nature of the ecosystem.[91] Because of this persistence and its use as an additive in ship paint, high concentrations of tributyltin have been found in marine sediments located near naval docks.[92] Tributyltin has been used as a biomarker for imposex in neograstropods, with at least 82 known species.[93] With the high levels of TBT in the local inshore areas, due to shipping activities, the shellfish had an adverse effect.[91] Imposex is the imposition of male sexual characteristics on female specimens where they grow a penis and a pallial vas deferens.[93][94] A high level of TBT can damage mammalian endocrine glands, reproductive and central nervous systems, bone structure and gastrointestinal tract.[94] Not only does tributyltin affect mammals, it affects sea otters, whales, dolphins, and humans.[94]

Organic chemistry[edit]

Some tin reagents are useful in organic chemistry. In the largest application, stannous chloride is a common reducing agent for the conversion of nitro and oxime groups to amines. The Stille reaction couples organotin compounds with organic halides or pseudohalides.[95]

Li-ion batteries[edit]

Main article: Lithium-ion battery

Tin forms several inter-metallic phases with lithium metal, making it a potentially attractive material for battery applications. Large volumetric expansion of tin upon alloying with lithium and instability of the tin-organic electrolyte interface at low electrochemical potentials are the greatest challenges to employment in commercial cells. The problem was partially solved by Sony.[citation needed] Tin inter-metallic compound with cobalt and carbon was implemented by Sony in its Nexelion cells released in the late 2000s. The composition of the active material is approximately Sn0.3Co0.4C0.3. Research showed that only some crystalline facets of tetragonal (beta) Sn are responsible for undesirable electrochemical activity.[96]

Precautions[edit]

Main article: Tin poisoning

Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are almost unknown. On the other hand, certain organotin compounds are almost as toxic as cyanide.[39]

Exposure to tin in the workplace can occur by inhalation, skin contact, and eye contact. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set the permissible exposure limit for tin exposure in the workplace as 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) determined a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 mg/m3, tin is immediately dangerous to life and health.[97]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Only H, F, P, Tl and Xe are easier to use NMR analysis with for samples containing isotopes at their natural abundance.

References[edit]

  1. ^"Standard Atomic Weights: Tin". CIAAW. 1983.
  2. ^"New Type of Zero-Valent Tin Compound". Chemistry Europe. 27 August 2016.
  3. ^"HSn". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
  4. ^"SnH3". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institure of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
  5. ^Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics(PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN .
  6. ^Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN .
  7. ^Gray, Theodore (2007). "Tin images". The Elements. Black Dog & Leventhal.
  8. ^ abcdHolleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (1985). "Tin". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 793–800. ISBN .
  9. ^"Ink with tin nanoparticles could print future circuit boards". Phys.org. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011.
  10. ^Jo, Yun Hwan; Jung, Inyu; Choi, Chung Seok; Kim, Inyoung; Lee, Hyuck Mo (2011). "Synthesis and characterization of low temperature Sn nanoparticles for the fabrication of highly conductive ink". Nanotechnology. 22 (22): 225701. Bibcode:2011Nanot..22v5701J. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/22/22/225701. PMID 21454937.
  11. ^Molodets, A.M.; Nabatov, S.S. (2000). "Thermodynamic potentials, diagram of state, and phase transitions of tin on shock compression". High Temperature. 38 (5): 715–721. doi:10.1007/BF02755923. S2CID 120417927.
  12. ^Le Coureur, Penny; Burreson, Jay (2004). Napoleon's Buttons: 17 molecules that changed history. New York: Penguin Group, USA.
  13. ^Öhrström, Lars (2013). The Last Alchemist in Paris. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN .
  14. ^Cotton, Simon (29 April 2014). "Book review: The last alchemist in Pari". Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  15. ^Emsley, John (1 October 2011) [2001]. Nature's Building Blocks: an A-Z Guide to the Elements (New ed.). New York, United States: Oxford University Press. p. 552. ISBN .
  16. ^ abSchwartz, Mel (2002). "Tin and alloys, properties". Encyclopedia of Materials, Parts and Finishes (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN .
  17. ^Dehaas, W.; Deboer, J.; Vandenberg, G. (1935). "The electrical resistance of cadmium, thallium and tin at low temperatures". Physica. 2 (1–12): 453. Bibcode:1935Phy.....2..453D. doi:10.1016/S0031-8914(35)90114-8.
  18. ^ abMeissner, W.; R. Ochsenfeld (1933). "Ein neuer effekt bei eintritt der Supraleitfähigkeit". Naturwissenschaften. 21 (44): 787–788. Bibcode:1933NW.....21..787M. doi:10.1007/BF01504252. S2CID 37842752.
  19. ^Craig, Bruce D.; Anderson, David S.; International, A. S. M. (January 1995). Handbook of corrosion data. p. 126. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2016-05-11.
  20. ^"Interactive NMR Frequency Map". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  21. ^Walker, Phil (1994). "Doubly Magic Discovery of Tin-100". Physics World. 7 (June): 28. doi:10.1088/2058-7058/7/6/24.
  22. ^Audi, Georges; Bersillon, Olivier; Blachot, Jean; Wapstra, Aaldert Hendrik (2003), "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties", Nuclear Physics A, 729: 3–128, Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A, doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
  23. ^Cameron, A. G. W. (1973). "Abundance of the Elements in the Solar System"(PDF). Space Science Reviews. 15 (1): 121–146. Bibcode:1973SSRv...15..121C. doi:10.1007/BF00172440. S2CID 120201972. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-10-21.
  24. ^ abc"tin". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  25. ^Harper, Douglas. "tin". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  26. ^Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Edition, 1911, s.v. 'tin', citing H. Kopp
  27. ^"The Ancient Mining of Tin". oxleigh.freeserve.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2009-04-03. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
  28. ^American Heritage Dictionary
  29. ^Cierny, J.; Weisgerber, G. (2003). "The "Bronze Age tin mines in Central Asia". In Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F. (eds.). The Problem of Early Tin. Oxford: Archaeopress. pp. 23–31. ISBN .
  30. ^ abcPenhallurick, R. D. (1986). Tin in Antiquity: its Mining and Trade Throughout the Ancient World with Particular Reference to Cornwall. London: The Institute of Metals. ISBN .
  31. ^Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C.; Franklin, Alan D.; Olin, Jacqueline S.; Wertime, Theodore A., eds. (July 1980). "The development of the usage of tin and tin-bronze: some problems". The Search for Ancient Tin. Technology and Culture. 21. Washington D.C.: A seminar organized by Theodore A. Wertime and held at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C. March 14–15, 1977. p. 474. doi:10.2307/3103162. ISSN 0040-165X. JSTOR 3103162.
  32. ^Dube, RK (September 2006). "Interrelation between gold and tin: A historical perspective". Gold Bulletin. 39 (3): 103–113. doi:10.1007/BF03215537.
  33. ^ abHolleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN 
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    2". J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 57 (1): 7–16. Bibcode:1996JPCS...57....7L. doi:10.1016/0022-3697(95)00060-7.
  37. ^Gaur, D. P.; Srivastava, G.; Mehrotra, R. C. (1973). "Organic Derivatives of Tin. III. Reactions of Trialkyltin Ethoxide with Alkanolamines". Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie. 398: 72. doi:10.1002/zaac.19733980109.
  38. ^Elschenbroich, Christoph (2006). Organometallics (3rd, completely rev. and extended ed.). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN . OCLC 64305455.
  39. ^ abcGraf, G. G. (2000) "Tin, Tin Alloys, and Tin Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim doi:10.1002/14356007.a27_049
  40. ^
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin

Molecular weight tin

 

The atomic mass of an element is the average mass of the atoms of an element measured in atomic mass unit (amu, also known as daltons, D).  The atomic mass is a weighted average of all of the isotopes of that element, in which the mass of each isotope is multiplied by the abundance of that particular isotope.  (Atomic mass is also referred to as atomic weight, but the term "mass" is more accurate.)

For instance, it can be determined experimentally that neon consists of three isotopes:  neon-20 (with 10 protons and 10 neutrons in its nucleus) with a mass of 19.992 amu and an abundance of 90.48%, neon-21 (with 10 protons and 11 neutrons) with a mass of 20.994 amu and an abundance of 0.27%, and neon-22 (with 10 protons and 12 neutrons) with a mass of 21.991 amu and an abundance of 9.25%.  The average atomic mass of neon is thus:

0.9048×19.992 amu=18.09 amu
0.0027×20.994 amu=  0.057 amu
0.0925×21.991 amu=  2.03 amu
     20.18 amu

 

The atomic mass is useful in chemistry when it is paired with the mole concept:  the atomic mass of an element, measured in amu, is the same as the mass in grams of one mole of an element.  Thus, since the atomic mass of iron is 55.847 amu, one mole of iron atoms would weigh 55.847 grams.  The same concept can be extended to ionic compounds and molecules.  One formula unit of sodium chloride (NaCl) would weigh 58.44 amu (22.98977 amu for Na + 35.453 amu for Cl), so a mole of sodium chloride would weigh 58.44 grams.  One molecule of water (H2O) would weigh 18.02 amu (2×1.00797 amu for H + 15.9994 amu for O), and a mole of water molecules would weigh 18.02 grams.

The original periodic table of the elements published by Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869 arranged the elements that were known at the time in order of increasing atomic weight, since this was prior to the discovery of the nucleus and the interior structure of the atom.  The modern periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic number instead.

 

Sours: https://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/periodic/structure_mass.htm
Introduction to Polymers - Lecture 4.2. - Number average molecular weight

Molecular weight of Tin

Molar mass of Sn = 118.710 g/mol

Convert grams Tin to moles  or  moles Tin to grams


Element  Symbol  Atomic Mass  # of Atoms  Mass Percent
TinSn118.7101100.000%

Note that all formulas are case-sensitive. Did you mean to find the molecular weight of one of these similar formulas?
SN
Sn




In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together.

A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass.

If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom (or group of atoms) in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by 100.

Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance.

The atomic weights used on this site come from NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass (average molecular weight), which is based on isotropically weighted averages. This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass.

Finding molar mass starts with units of grams per mole (g/mol). When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance. The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula.

Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights.

Sours: https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/Tin

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