single by Psy
"Gangnam Style" (Korean: 강남스타일, IPA:[kaŋ.nam sɯ.tʰa.il]) is a song by South Korean singer Psy, released on July 15, , by YG Entertainment as the lead single of his sixth studio album, Psy 6 (Six Rules), Part 1 (Ssai Yukgap Part 1). A K-pop and dance-pop song, the term "Gangnam Style" is a Korean neologism that refers to a lifestyle associated with the Gangnam District of Seoul. The song received mixed reviews, with praise for its catchy beat and Psy's amusing dancing (which has itself become a phenomenon) in the music video and during live performances in various locations around the world.
"Gangnam Style" debuted at number one on South Korea's Gaon Chart. The song and its music video went viral in August and have influenced popular culture worldwide. In the United States, "Gangnam Style" peaked at number two on Billboard Hot By the end of , "Gangnam Style" had topped the music charts of more than 30 countries including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
A music video was released the same day, attracting global media attention and a public audience. In September , "Gangnam Style" was recognized by Guinness World Records as the most "liked" video on YouTube at the time. It subsequently won Best Video at the MTV Europe Music Awards held that year. It became a source of parodies and reaction videos by many different individuals, groups, and organizations. On December 21, , "Gangnam Style" became the first YouTube video to reach 1 billion views. As of July 27, , song's music video has more than billion views, and was the most viewed video on YouTube from November 24, , when it surpassed the music video for "Baby" by Justin Bieber featuring Ludacris, to July 10, , when it was itself surpassed by the music video for "See You Again" by Wiz Khalifa featuring Charlie Puth.
Its dance was attempted by political leaders such as British Prime Minister David Cameron and United Nations Secretary-GeneralBan Ki-moon, who hailed it as a force for world peace. On May 7, , at a bilateral meeting with South Korea's President Park Geun-hye at the White House, US President Barack Obama cited the success of "Gangnam Style" as an example of how people around the world are being "swept up" by the Korean Wave of culture.
Background and release
"Gangnam Style" is a South Korean neologism that refers to a lifestyle associated with the Gangnam District of Seoul, where people are trendy, hip, and exude a certain supposed "class." The term was listed in Time's weekly vocabulary list as a manner associated with lavish lifestyles in Seoul's Gangnam district. Psy likened the Gangnam District to Beverly Hills, California, and said in an interview that he intended in a twisted sense of humor by claiming himself to be "Gangnam Style" when everything about the song, dance, looks, and the music video is far from being such a high class:
People who are actually from Gangnam never proclaim that they are—it's only the posers and wannabes that put on these airs and say that they are "Gangnam Style"—so this song is actually poking fun at those kinds of people who are trying very hard to be something that they're not.
The song talks about "the perfect girlfriend who knows when to be refined and when to get wild." The song's refrain "오빤 강남 스타일 (Oppan Gangnam style)" has been translated as "Big brother is Gangnam style," with Psy referring to himself. During an interview with The New York Times, Psy revealed that South Korean fans have huge expectations about his dancing, so he felt a lot of pressure. In order to keep up with expectations, he studied hard to find something new and stayed up late for about 30 nights to come up with the "Gangnam Style" dance. Along the way, he had tested various "cheesy" animal-inspired dance moves with his choreographer Lee Ju-sun, including panda and kangaroo moves, before settling for the horse trot, which involves pretending to ride a horse, alternately holding the reins and spinning a lasso, and moving into a legs-shuffling side gallop.
During an interview with Reuters, Psy said that "Gangnam Style" was originally produced only for local K-pop fans. On July 11, , Psy and his music label YG Entertainment started releasing several promotional teasers for "Gangnam Style" to their subscribers on YouTube. On July 15, , the full music video of "Gangnam Style" was uploaded onto YouTube and was immediately a sensation, receiving about , views on its first day. However, at the time of its release in Germany, a dispute between YouTube and the GEMA (the country's performance rights organization) regarding copyright issues led to thousands of music videos including "Gangnam Style" being blocked in the country. The music video, along with other music videos from GEMA-protected artists released on YouTube were unblocked in Germany on October 31, , after YouTube reached an agreement with GEMA on copyrights and royalties.
K-pop and the Korean Wave
Main articles: K-pop and Korean Wave
According to the news agency Agence France-Presse, the success of "Gangnam Style" could be considered as part of the Korean Wave, a term coined by Chinese journalists to refer to the significant increase in the popularity of South Korean entertainment and culture since the late s.
Korean popular music (K-pop), considered by some to be the most important aspect of the Korean Wave, is a music genre that relies on cultural technology to adapt to the tastes of foreign audiences and has now grown into a popular subculture among teenagers and young adults in many places around the world. Although it has spread to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and parts of South America, its reception in the Western world has so far been lukewarm. However, social media networks such as YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter have made it easier for K-pop musicians to reach a wider audience in the West. According to Mark James Russell from Foreign Policy, while the Korean Wave "may not (yet) turn heads in Los Angeles or London," this could soon change because of "Gangnam Style,"
The song has received mixed to positive ratings from music critics. Music journalist Bill Lamb from About.com praised the song for "spreading smiles and pure fun around the world in record time." He then writes, "take one part LMFAO's synth-based party music, another part Ricky Martin's Latin dance party and the rest a powerfully charismatic South Korean showman and you have the first worldwide K-Pop smash hit." Billboard K-Town columnist Jeff Benjamin became one of the first music critics to review the song when he published an article and reported that "Gangnam Style" has gone viral on the Internet. In his article, Benjamin introduced the reader to a couple of popular K-pop songs and wrote that "‘Gangnam Style’ in particular, plays all the right moves sonically while "borrowing from LMFAO along the way."
Hallie Sekoff of The Huffington Post quoted from the video's official YouTube video description that the song is characterized by its "strongly addictive beats," and wrote that this is not too far-fetched, considering "how obsessed we've found ourselves." London's mayor Boris Johnson considered the song to be the greatest cultural masterpiece of 
Despite its popularity, a few music critics including Robert Copsey from Digital Spy criticized the song for being monotonous. Cospey wrote that "you could slap an LMFAO tag on the cover and few would know the difference" and Paul Lester of The Guardian similarly labeled it as "generic ravey Euro dance with guitars." Lester described the song as "Pump Up the Jam meets the Macarena with a dash of Cotton Eye Joe," while Robert Myers of The Village Voice dismissed "Gangnam Style" as an "inspired piece of silliness."
South Korea and Japan
Cha Woo-jin, a South Korean music critic, told The Chosun Ilbo that "Gangnam Style"'s sophisticated rendering and arrangement has made it very appealing to the general public. Choe Kwang-shik, the South Korean Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism, told reporters that "Gangnam Style" had played an important role in introducing the Korean culture, language, and lifestyle to the rest of the world. However, some have criticized the song for failing to accurately represent South Korean culture. Oh Young-Jin, managing editor of The Korea Times, wrote that the dance has more to do with Americans than Koreans.
In Japan, the song was met with considerable criticism. When "Gangnam Style" first appeared in Japanese TV shows in July, the reaction from viewers was negative. As a result, Psy's Japanese record label YGEX canceled a previously planned Japanese language re-release of "Gangnam Style." According to The Dong-a Ilbo, a South Korean newspaper, the song's lukewarm reception in Japan could have been caused by a diplomatic conflict between the two countries and the newspaper accused the Japanese media of keeping its people "in the dark." However, Jun Takaku of the Japanese daily newspaper Asahi Shimbun explained that "Gangnam Style" had caused "barely a ripple in Japan" because Psy does not conform to the image of other "traditionally polished" K-pop acts popular in Japan such as Girls' Generation and TVXQ. Erica Ho from Time magazine similarly noted that despite the K-pop musical genre being very popular in Japan, the country seemed to be "immune to PSY Mania" and she advised her readers who dislike the song to "pack your bags for Japan."
Immediately after its release, "Gangnam Style" was mentioned by various English-language websites providing coverage of Korean pop culture for international fans, including Allkpop and Soompi.Simon and Martina Stawski, a Canadian couple living in Seoul who were among the first to parody "Gangnam Style" in late July, wrote that the song has the potential to become "one of the biggest songs of the year." However, during an interview with Al Jazeera a few weeks later, Martina Stawski claimed that the worldwide popularity of "Gangnam Style" has been viewed negatively by some K-pop fans, because "they [the fans] didn't want K-pop being liked by other people who don't understand K-Pop." This view is also supported by the British journalist and K-pop fan Promi Ferdousi, who wrote that the song has managed to "find its way into our clubs" while the best K-pop songs are limited to niche groups on social media websites.
Main article: Gangnam Style (music video)
The video starts out with Psy, who is lounging at what looks like a sandy beach, under a sun umbrella and holding a cold drink, but the camera zooms out to reveal he is actually at a playground. The video then alternates between the playground, where a boy (Hwang Min-woo) dances next to him; and a row of horses, who are in stalls, where Psy performs his signature "invisible horse dance." As Psy (and two women) walk through a parking garage, they are pelted by pieces of newspaper, trash, and snow. At a sauna, he rests his head on a man's shoulder, dressed in blue, while another man covered in tattoos is stretching. He then sings in front of two men (then labelmates under YG Entertainment, BIG BANG's Daesung and Seungri, dressed as older men) playing Janggi (Korean chess), dances with a woman at a tennis court, and bounces around on a tour bus of seniors. The scenes alternate quickly until there is an explosion near the chess players, causing them to dive off the bench. Psy immediately walks toward the camera, pointing and shouting "Oppa Gangnam Style." The chorus starts as he and some dancers perform at a horse stable. He dances as two women walk backwards. He dances at the tennis court, a carousel, and the tour bus. He shuffles into an outdoor yoga session and on a boat. The camera zooms in on a woman's butt, then shows Psy "yelling" at it.
The chorus ends and he is seen in a parking garage, where Psy is approached by a man (Yoo Jae-suk) in a yellow suit who steps out of a red Mercedes-Benz SLK ; they have a dance duel. Psy then appears in an elevator underneath a man (Noh Hong-Chul) who is straddling him and thrusting his pelvis. The man in the yellow suit then gets in his car and leaves. The camera pans and it shows Psy in the subway station, where he boards the train and notices an attractive young woman (Hyuna) dancing. At one of the train stops, he approaches the girl in slow motion, and she approaches him. They start to embrace. He then tells the girl "Oppa Gangnam Style," and they horse dance along with some other dancers at the train stop, commencing the second chorus. He also surfaces from a spa hot tub.[note 1]
Psy sings to the woman at a nightclub as people in various costumes walk behind them. He raps in a serious tone in an enclosed space, but when he says "You know what I'm saying" the camera zooms out, and it is revealed that he is actually sitting on a toilet with his pants down. Psy and a large group of dancers do the horse dance and strike a final pose. After a brief reprise of the dance duel, Psy says, "Oppa Gangnam style," and the video finishes with a cartoon graphic.
The music video is directed by Cho Soo-hyun, who also directed the MV for Psy's follow-up single "Gentleman" and the MV for "This Love" by Shinhwa. It shows Psy performing a comical horse-riding dance and appearing in unexpected locations around the Gangnam District, such as an outdoor yoga session and a hot tub. He wears several distinctive suits and black sunglasses with a mindset of "dress classy and dance cheesy." It features a "skewering [of] the Gangnam image" by the "non-Gangnam Psy"; this parody would be recognizable to viewers familiar with Korean culture. Although there are more than ten different locations featured, only two of the scenes are actually filmed in the Gangnam district. The sauna scene, elevator scene, and bathroom scene were filmed elsewhere in the greater Seoul region, and some shots were filmed in World Trade Center Seoul and the Songdo International Business District, which includes Songdo Central Park and International Business District Station. The video was shot over 48 hours in July 
In K-pop, it is routine to have cameos by celebrities in a music video, such as in the dance scenes in the elevator and the parking garage. The guests in the music video include:
- 4Minute member Hyuna, who dances in the subway car and attracts Psy's attention.
- BIG BANG's Daesung and Seungri, who are dressed as older men playing Janggi on a bench behind Psy.
- Hwang Min-woo, a 7-year-old boy who dances at the beginning of the video. During an interview with CNN, Psy stated that "the night before the music video shoot, I was watching Korea's Got Talent and saw him dance to Michael Jackson. His moves were ridiculous. So we called him up and asked him to be in the music video, which was shooting the very next day, and he came and it all worked out." He has been praised for his eye-catching dance moves that have received a lot of attention from viewers.
- Comedian/television personality Korea's Nation emceeYoo Jae-suk, who engages in a dance duel with Psy.
- Comedian/television personality Noh Hongchul, who does his trademark pelvis-thrusting dance in an elevator while Psy raps underneath him.
The music was composed by Psy and Yoo Gun-hyung, a producer in South Korea who has also collaborated with Psy in the past. Yoo also arranged the song while Psy was responsible for the lyrics.
Following its July 15 release, "Gangnam Style" overtook Carly Rae Jepsen's "Call Me Maybe" to reach the number one position on the YouTube Top Music Videos during the week of August 28,  On September 1, , it overtook Girls' Generation's "Gee" to become the most viewed K-pop video on YouTube. Although "Call Me Maybe" had unusually strong staying power, averaging over million views each day, "Gangnam Style" increased to an average of over nine million views per day within just two months. This was mainly because "Call Me Maybe" remained largely a North American trend, whereas the popularity of "Gangnam Style" was not confined to the United States. percent of viewers were male, and those aged between 13 and 17 represented the biggest group.
According to The Wall Street Journal, T-Pain was among the first to have "sent [the video] to the stratosphere" when he tweeted about it on July 29,  It was then picked up by Neetzan Zimmerman from the social blog Gawker, who asked "Did this underground Hip Hop artist from South Korea just release the Best Music Video of the Year?" on July This was soon followed by Robbie Williams,Britney Spears,Katy Perry,Tom Cruise,Joseph Gordon-Levitt, and William Gibson, who either commented about or shared the video with their fans via Twitter.
The earliest video to catch the attention of media networks outside South Korea was "Psy Gangnam Style MV Reaction," which was uploaded by Katie and Mindy Anderson on July 18, The Andersons were subsequently interviewed by Evan Ramstad from The Wall Street Journal a few weeks later. In his article published on August 6, , Ramstad also included "Kpop Music Mondays: PSY Gangnam Style," a review and parody of "Gangnam Style" uploaded on July 23 by K-pop video bloggers Simon and Martina Stawski, a Canadian couple living in Seoul. This makes the Stawskis' video the earliest parody featured in an American newspaper. On August 8, , Ramstad appeared on WSJ Live, and he mentioned the Andersons and the Stawskis again, before claiming that "a lot of Koreans are also making their own parodies of 'Gangnam Style.'"
On September 3, , the number of daily views generated by "Gangnam Style" went past the 5-million mark. By the end of September, it had topped the iTunes charts in 31 countries.
2 Earliest notable parody by K-pop bloggers Simon and Martina Stawski, uploaded on July 23
3a Shared on the social newswebsite Reddit, July 28
3b Earliest celebrity comment by Robbie Williamson his personal blog, July 28
3c Featured in the foreign tabloid newspaper Ilta-Sanomat, in Finland, July 28
4 First celebrity tweet by T-Pain, July 29
5 Picked up by Neetzan Zimmerman from the social blog Gawker, July 30
6 Picked up by the British political commentator Andrew Sullivan, who blogs about the video on The Daily Beast, August 1
7 Featured in CNN Internationaland The Wall Street Journal, August 3
8 Nelly Furtadoperforms "Gangnam Style" at her concert in the Philippines, August 16
9 Psy performs "Gangnam Style" at Dodger Stadium, August This marks his first public appearance in the United States
10 Katy Perryshares the "Gangnam Style" music video with her 25 million followers on Twitter, August 21
11 Psy appears on VH1with Carrie Keaganand Jason Dundas, August This marks his first appearance in a US television show
"Gangnam Style" reached the unprecedented milestone of 1 billion YouTube views on December 21, A spoof documentary by videographer Simon Gosselin was posted on YouTube and had promoted doomsday rumors across social media services such as Facebook and Twitter that linked "Gangnam Style" to a fake Nostradamus prophecy. On December 21, at around UTC, the video's YouTube page updated with 1,,, views. YouTube specially marked the video's accomplishments with a cartoon dancing Psy animated icon, added first by the site logo, and later next to the video's view counter when it exceeded 1 billion views. On April 6, , the video on YouTube reached billion views. On July 5, , the view counter updated with 1,,, views, which was 15 million higher than same time the previous day. This increased the average number of views per day from 4,, to 4,, (views divided by the number of days since release).
As of January , the video is the eighth most viewed video on YouTube, having reached 4 billion views.
The music video of "Gangnam Style" has been met with positive responses from the music industry and commentators, who drew attention to its tone and dance moves, though some found them vulgar. Another notable aspect that helped popularise the video was its comical dance moves that can be easily copied, such as the pelvic thrust during the elevator scene. The United Nations hailed Psy as an "international sensation" because of the popularity of his "satirical" video clip and its "horse-riding-like dance moves." As such, the music video has spawned a dance craze unseen since the Macarena of the mids.
The World Bank's lead economist David McKenzie remarked that some of Psy's dance moves "kind of look like a regression discontinuity," while the space agency NASA called "Gangnam Style" a dance-filled music video that has forever entered the hearts and minds of millions of people. Melissa Locker of Time noted that "it's hard not to watch again and again and again," while CNN reporter Shanon Cook told the audience that she had watched "Gangnam Style" about 15 times.
The German news magazine Der Spiegel attributed the popularity of "Gangnam Style" to its daring dance moves, a sentiment similarly voiced by Maura Judkis of The Washington Post, who wrote, "'Gangnam Style' has made an extraordinarily stupid-looking dance move suddenly cool." The video was also positively reviewed by Steve Knopper from Rolling Stone, who called "Gangnam Style" an astoundingly great K-pop video that has all the best elements of hypnotically weird one-hit wonders and hopes that "PSY gets filthy rich from this."
Mesfin Fekadu of the Associated Press wrote that Psy's dance moves are "somewhat bizarre" but the music video is full of colorful, lively outfits. Matt Buchanan and Scott Ellis of The Sydney Morning Herald wrote that the video "makes no sense at all to most Western eyes" and it "makes you wonder if you have accidentally taken someone else's medication" whereas Deborah Netburn of the Los Angeles Times called it "one of the greatest videos ever to be uploaded to YouTube." Kim Alessi from Common Sense Media considered the music video for "Gangnam Style" worth seeing for its caricature of contemporary Asian and American urban lifestyles, but also warned that "Gangnam Style" contains sexually suggestive images and "degrading messages" which could be inappropriate for children and teenagers.
Main article: Gangnam Style in popular culture
After the release of "Gangnam Style," the American talent manager Scooter Braun, who discovered Justin Bieber on YouTube, asked on Twitter "How did I not sign this guy [Psy]?" Soon afterward, it was reported that Psy had left for Los Angeles to meet with representatives of Justin Bieber, to explore collaboration opportunities. On September 3, , Braun made a public announcement that was later uploaded onto YouTube, saying that he and Psy have decided to "make some history together. [To] be the first Korean artist to break a big record in the United States." On September 4, it was confirmed that Psy was signed to Braun's School Boy Records.
The music video for the song has gone viral and is an Internet meme. Although Psy attributed the song's popularity to YouTube and his fans while at the same time insisted that he is not responsible for the song's success, the South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism recognized the singer for "increasing the world's interest in Korea" and announced its decision to award Psy with a 4th Class Order of Cultural Merit.
The phrase "Oppan Gangnam Style" was entered into The Yale Book of Quotations as one of the most famous quotes of 
As the song's popularity continued to rise, it caused the share price of the song's music label YG Entertainment to gain as much as 50% on the Korea Exchange. DI Corporation, whose executive chairman Park Won-Ho is Psy's father, saw its share price increase by % within a few months of the song's release despite making a year-over-year loss. Soon, "Gangnam Style" began to attract the attention of several business and political leaders, including UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon who recognized the song as a "force for world peace." During his meeting with Psy at the United Nations Headquarters, he commented, "We have tough negotiations in the United Nations. In such a case I was also thinking of playing Gangnam Style-dance so that everybody would stop and dance. Maybe you can bring UN style."
Through social networks like Facebook, many small, unofficial fan-organized flash mobs have been held in universities and colleges throughout the world. The earliest flash mobs were held in Pasadena, California, and Sydney, Australia. On September 12, , Times Square in Manhattan was filled with a dance mob dancing to the music of "Gangnam Style" during ABC's Good Morning America. Major flash mobs (those with more than 1, participants) were also held in Seoul (South Korea), South Sulawesi (Indonesia), Palermo (Italy), Milan (Italy), and Paris (France).
|October 6,||Seoul||South Korea||15,|
|October 14,||Makassar, South Sulawesi||Indonesia||12,|
|October 21,||Piazza del Duomo, Milan||Italy||20,|
|November 5,||Jardins du Trocadéro, Paris||France||20,|
|November 10,||Piazza del Popolo, Rome||Italy||15,|
The song has been mentioned in tweets by the United Nations, the United Nations Children's Fund, and the American space agency NASA; by a reporter during a U.S. State Department briefing; and referenced by the president of the International Criminal CourtSong Sang-Hyun during his speech in front of the UN Security Council. On October 9, the mayor of London Boris Johnson held a speech at the Conservative Party Conference where he told the audience that he and the British Prime Minister David Cameron have danced "Gangnam Style." During a Google Earnings call, Larry Page, the CEO and co-founder of Google, hailed the song as a glimpse of the future of worldwide distribution through YouTube.
The American Council on Exercise estimated that dancing "Gangnam Style" will burn – calories per half-hour.Swype, an input method for Android operating systems, included "Gangnam Style" in its list of recognized words and phrases.
U.S. President Barack Obama revealed possible plans to privately perform "Gangnam Style" for his spouse Michelle Obama.
In November , a Māori cultural group from Rotorua performed a version of the Gangnam Style dance mixed with a traditional Māori haka in Seoul, celebrating 50 years of diplomatic relations between South Korea and New Zealand.
In Thailand, officials from the Dan Sai municipality in Loei Province shot a video of people wearing masks and performing "Gangnam Style" during the Phi Ta Khon "ghost" festival. According to the Thai newspaper The Nation, villagers and spiritual leaders from Loei province felt "uneasy" and also "greatly offended" about this "Gangnam Style" performance which tarnishes the image of a year-old tradition. Another controversial incident was sparked by a "Gangnam Style" parody by officers from the Royal Thai Navy, which was not well received by some high-ranking commanders. Although Vice Admiral Tharathorn Kajitsuwan from the Third Naval Area Command insisted that "we had no intention to insult or make fun of navy officers in uniform," some senior officers called it "improper." Kajitsuwan claimed that his subordinates had the right to upload the video to YouTube, although he did not expect them to do so. On October 1, , he issued an apology to his colleagues. Commander Surasak Rounroengrom believed an investigation was unnecessary because the video caused no damage to the navy, but he admitted that there was some impropriety about military officers doing their "fancy stepping in uniform."
- In mid-September, the Brazilian singer Latino released the song "Despedida de solteiro" ("The Bachelor's Party"), which is supposed to be a cover of "Gangnam Style". Many people felt offended by his disrespectful lyrics, and some have called it a plagiarized copy of "Gangnam Style." While Psy's original lyrics talk about the lifestyle of the Gangnam people, Latino's version is about a man who is enjoying his bachelor's party in a club, wanting (and having) sex with many women, and is so drunk that he says he does not know if he is really going to get married the next day. Latino had stated that it was an authorized version.
Since September , the dance has been performed by athletes in international competitions. These people include:
Political and environmental activism
On September 18, , the North Korean government became the first to use "Gangnam Style" for political activism when it uploaded a parody with the title "I'm Yushin style!" onto the government website Uriminzokkiri. The parody mocks the South Korean ruling conservative party president-elect Park Geun-hye. It shows a Photoshopped image of the presidential candidate performing the dance moves of "Gangnam Style" and labels her as a devoted admirer of the Yushin system of autocratic rule set up by her father, Park Chung-hee. A few weeks later, "草泥马 style" (literally, "Grass Mud Horse Style"),[note 2] was uploaded onto YouTube and other Chinese websites by the political activist and dissidentAi Weiwei. In his parody, Ai Weiwei dances "Gangnam Style" with a pair of handcuffs as a symbol of his arrest by Chinese authorities in According to the Associated Press, government authorities had removed the video from almost all Chinese websites the next day.
South Korean President Park Geun-hye took office on February 25, At her inauguration, Psy performed "Gangnam Style" and "Champion," one of his first hits in his native country.
In order to show his solidarity with Ai Weiwei and to advocate the freedom of expression, the British sculptor Anish Kapoor produced the video Gangnam for Freedom, which features other prominent British artists as well as human rights activists from various international organisations including Index on Censorship and Amnesty International. A few days before, the global grassroots network Students for a Free Tibet had uploaded a parody of "Gangnam Style" to show its support for the Tibetan independence movement. According to Max Fisher from The Washington Post, this parody of "Gangnam Style" was likely to be filmed in Dharamshala, the home of Tibet's government-in-exile in the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Greenpeace announced that it was "Going Gangnam, Greenpeace Style" in order to raise public awareness about illegal and unsustainable fishing practices off the coast of Mozambique. Activists from Greenpeace had parodied "Gangnam Style" on board the organization's excursion yacht Rainbow Warrior.
Songdo, a ubiquitous city 40 miles (65km) west of Gangnam, was among five cities vying for the right to host the Green Climate Fund (GCF), a project developed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to channel $ billion a year from developed countries to help developing countries combat climate change. During its campaign to win the right to host the GCF, the country's Presidential Committee on Green Growth produced a promotional video entitled "GCF Songdo Style by Psy" in which Psy recommends Songdo as the host city for the GCF. He announces that a "new paradigm" will begin at Songdo with the GCF and the video heralds "The beginning of Songdo Style" while "Gangnam Style" plays in the background. On October 20, , the board of the GCF announced that Songdo had won the right to host the fund.
In December , the Department of Health in the Philippines launched a "Gangnam Style" dance campaign against the use of firecrackers to celebrate the New Year.Janine Tugonon, Miss Universe first runner-up, joined and danced on one of their campaign at Pandacan, Manila. According to the department's assistant secretary, Dr. Eric Tayag, the popularity of the song will attract people especially children to use safer means of celebration such as dancing "Gangnam Style." In contrast, the Philippine National Police was confirming intelligence reports about a firecracker named "Gangnam bomb," which supposedly produced by illegal firecracker makers in Bocaue, Bulacan and apparently riding on the popularity of the song. According to Chief Superintendent Raul Petrasanta, director of the Firearms and Explosives Office of the Philippine National Police, he did not know what the possibly dangerous "Gangnam bomb" looks like.
Muhammad Rahim al Afghani, a close associate of Osama bin Laden currently held at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, had also used the song to demonstrate his ability to gain access to popular cultural trends despite being confined within a top secret prison. In a letter to his lawyer, Muhammad wrote, "I like this new song Gangnam Style. I want to do the dance for you but cannot because of my shackles."
Other parodies and covers
Reaction videos and parodies have been made for or with the music respectively. Some of these user generated videos have received international media recognition. "Gangnam Style"-related videos have also been uploaded by the CPDRC Dancing Inmates,Cody Simpson,Seungri,Latino,Fine Brothers,Barely Political, and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers Cheerleaders.
Numerous parodies have been spawned on college campuses. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology's version ("MIT Gangnam Style") featured Donald Sadoway, recognized in Time Magazine as one of "Top Most Influential People in the World"; Eric Lander, who is co-chairman of President Barack Obama's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; and linguistics pioneer Noam Chomsky.The Maccabeats, an a cappella group from Yeshiva University, parodied the song as "What's Next? Sukkos Style?" with group members waving the four species. In addition, there have been parodies from The Ohio University Marching ,York University,McMaster University,Cornell University,University of Oregon,University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,Boston University,Dartmouth College,Stanford UniversityEton College, and the University of Michigan.
The American space agency NASA uploaded an educational parody shot by its students at its Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas. The video features cameo appearances by astronauts Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Mike Massimino, Michael Coats, Ellen Ochoa, and the International Space Station's Expedition 15 flight engineer Clayton Anderson, who dances "Gangnam Style" halfway through the video. Shortly after its upload, the parody was retweeted by the European Space Agency and the SETI Institute.
The song was also parodied by cadets from the United States Military Academy,United States Merchant Marine Academy,United States Naval Academy,United States Air Force Academy, and the Royal Military College of Canada; soldiers from the th Fires Brigade, the 2nd Infantry Division, service members from an undisclosed unit and location in Afghanistan, and service members from the China Coast Guard's Jiangsu division, as well as high-ranking officers from the Royal Thai Navy.CollegeHumor uploaded "Mitt Romney Style," while What's Trending uploaded "Obama Style." During the two weeks before August 7, , nearly 1, videos with the word "Gangnam" in the title were uploaded onto YouTube.
The Portuguese public broadcaster RTP1 spoofed the song in its late-night show 5 Para A Meia-Noite as Gamar com Style, sung by the comedian Pedro "Pacheco" Fernandes, criticizing the Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho, the European Union, the IMF, and the –13 Portuguese financial crisis.
There are many "Gangnam Style" parodies used for education. One such parody includes "Conjugation Style," a parody used to teach students about the conjugation of -er verbs in the French language. These sorts of parodies were referred to in the book Princess Labelmaker to the Rescue! (part of Tom Angleberger's Origami Yoda series), where one of the videos in the FunTime program purchased for McQuarrie Middle School involves Professor FunTime and his calculator sidekick Gizmo performing a parody of "Gangnam Style," entitled "FunTime Style."
YouTube comedian cs uploaded a YouTube Poop of the song's iconic video, called "[PSYTP] OPPA GODDAMN STYLE." The video has received more than 15 million views since its upload on October 11, 
Following the release of "Gangnam Style," Psy made several performances on television and at concerts in Korea. Early performances included his appearance on the weekly South Korean music program, The Music Trend. Psy also performed at several concerts prior to his departure to the United States, including during "The Heumbbeok Show" and the Summer Stand Concert in Seoul. After returning to South Korea, Psy performed "Gangnam Style" during a free concert that he held outside the Seoul City Hall. More than 80, fans attended the event, leading to the closure of part of the city center and an increase in subway operations. While Psy was in the US, it was announced that he, as ambassador of the Formula OneKorean Grand Prix, would perform "Gangnam Style" at the event during the edition. At the event Psy taught Formula One drivers Mark Webber and Sebastian Vettel how to perform the dance.
On November 28, , Psy visited Thailand and held his concert "Gangnam Style Thailand Extra Live" at the SCG Stadium in Muang Thong Thani, Bangkok. At the show, a part of celebration for the 85th birthday of Thai's King Bhumibol Adulyadej, he performed the song along with his other hits. During the Mnet Asian Music Awards held in Hong Kong on November 30, he performed the song on stage, joined by the video's co-star Hyuna and Yoo Jae-Seok look-alikes in yellow suits. The track was one of three-song setlist on Psy's free showcase, held at the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore on December 1, 
On February 11, , Psy arrived at the Malaysian state of Penang and performed "Gangnam Style" at a concert in front of more than , guests, including the Prime Minister of MalaysiaMohd Najib Abdul Razak as well as other high-ranking politicians from the country's ruling Barisan Nasional party.
In early October , Psy travelled to Sydney, Australia, and performed "Gangnam Style" on The X Factor, a reality TV music competition, where Melanie Brown joined him in performing the "horse dance" on stage. The following day, he performed on breakfast TV show Sunrise in Martin Place, Sydney.
Psy's first public performance in Europe was on November 5, , in France, where he and 20, fans danced "Gangnam Style" in front of the Eiffel Tower in Paris during a flashmob organized by NRJ Radio. Then, he traveled to Oxford and performed a short rendition of "Gangnam Style" with students from the Oxford Union, before moving on to the Yalding House in London where he danced "Gangnam Style" with the BBC's radio DJ Scott Mills. Shortly afterward, Psy left for Cologne and met up with the German comedian and television host Stefan Raab during the popular late-night show TV total, where Psy gave an interview and performed "Gangnam Style" for Raab. During the MTV Europe Music Awards held in Frankfurt on November 11, Psy delivered a performance of "Gangnam Style" which featured a David Hasselhoff appearance and backup dancing of Psy look-alikes.
In early , Psy returned to France for the NRJ Music Awards at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès in Cannes, where he began performing "Gangnam Style" on the red carpet before finishing the rest of the choreography on stage and leaving the ceremony with three awards.
Following the viral success of his music video, Psy left for the United States and performed "Gangnam Style" in various locations. On August 20, , Psy posted on Twitter "Bringing #GangnamStyle to the Dodgers–Giants game this evening." Dodger Stadium presented a segment called "Psy Dance Cam" where they showed clips of the music video, followed by live shots of baseball fans dancing, and then Psy, who waves and does the dance. Two days later, Psy appeared on VH1's Big Morning Buzz Live show, and taught television hosts Carrie Keagan and Jason Dundas how to dance "Gangnam Style."
On September 6, Psy appeared at the MTV Video Music Awards performing his "Gangnam Style" dance alongside comedian Kevin Hart. After the event, he made several more appearances on US TV programs. On September 10, he appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show in Burbank, California, introducing himself as "Psy from Korea" before teaching Britney Spears the dance. He described the dance as "pretending to bounce like riding on an invisible horse" and when DeGeneres told Spears she would have to remove her high-heeled shoes to perform the dance, Psy protested that no, the point was "to dress classy, and dance cheesy." On September 14, he appeared on NBC's morning program Today in New York City for its Toyota Concert Series, where he performed the song and also taught the anchors the dance. The September 15, , season premiere episode of Saturday Night Live featured a sketch based on the song and its video. Bobby Moynihan portrayed Psy, but was joined mid-sketch by Psy himself. He also made his second appearance on The Ellen Show's September 19 episode to perform the song along with his backup dancers. On September 22, Psy made an appearance at the iHeartRadio Music Festival to perform "Gangnam Style." Psy, dressed in a black jacket, blue pants, two-tone shoes, and his signature shades, appeared on the US national TV show The View on October 25 and performed the song for Barbara Walters and the women of the show who donned sunglasses and got out of their seats.
On November 13, he joined the American recording artist Madonna on stage during her concert at Madison Square Garden in New York City and they performed a mashup of the song and her hit "Give It 2 Me." Psy later told reporters that his gig with Madonna had "topped his list of accomplishments." On November 18, Psy, who rocked out in traditional Hammer pants, closed out the 40th American Music Awards show with a performance of "Gangnam Style" joined by surprise guest MC Hammer, who brought in his own moves and Psy's horse-riding dance as the song mashed into his s hit "2 Legit 2 Quit." Jason Lipshutz of Billboard commented that "Psy's feverish rendition of 'Gangnam Style' accomplished what so few award show performances can: a palpable sense of excitement. The combination of the K-pop star and MC Hammer was a stroke of genius that very few could have seen coming," and chose it as the best performance of the night.The Tonight Show with Jay Leno did a special Thanksgiving broadcast with an all-military audience on November 22, and Psy dropped by as the musical guest. The singer sang the song and danced alongside the soldiers, going into the crowd for part of his performance.
Psy performed "Gangnam Style" during the second night of KIIS-FM Jingle Ball concert at Nokia Theatre L.A. Live on December 3,  Wearing an all-red outfit including a sparkling, sequined top, he sang the song at TNT's Christmas in Washington special, attended by the US President Barack Obama and his family, and held at the National Building Museum On December 9. On December 16, he performed the song at the halftime show of the NFL game between the Buffalo Bills and Seattle Seahawks in Toronto. During the Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve event at Times Square in Manhattan on December 31, , more than 1 million people witnessed a live "Gangnam Style" performance by Psy as he was joined on stage by characters (Yoo Jae-Seok, Noh Hong-chul) from the song's video for the first part of the performance, before MC Hammer appeared to perform a mash-up of the song and "2 Legit 2 Quit."
During the five-day Carnival in Rio attended by more than 5 million people, Psy performed "Gangnam Style" with singers Claudia Leitte and Gilberto Gil to mark the 50th anniversary of Korean immigration to Brazil.
The success of "Gangnam Style" is a result of the build-up of South Korea's music industry that has been in the works for more than 20 years, and it has led to other K-pop artists positioning themselves for similar breakthroughs in the U.S. music industry. Frances Moore, chief executive of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, brought up Gangnam Style as an example of how South Korea became one of the "most successful exporters of repertoire."
Increased interest in the Korean Wave
According to the news agency Agence France-Presse, the success of "Gangnam Style" has led to the further rise and spread of the Korean Wave to other countries. As the song continued to attract worldwide media attention, it also led to various broadcasting networks and national newspapers focusing its attention on K-pop and other aspects of Korean culture. For example, The Daily Telegraph published an article recommending its readers to try out everything from K-Pop to "K-Cars," "K-Phones" and "K-Cuisine." Kim Byoung-gi, the Korean Ambassador to Lebanon, wrote that "Gangnam Style" had helped bridge Lebanese and Korean cultures. The French-born political commentator Tim Soutphommasane, a research fellow at Monash University, agreed that the "Gangnam phenomenon" was "something worth studying." According to Soutphommasane, the world was only beginning to appreciate Gangnam Style as "part of a broader hallyu cultural wave coming out of the country [South Korea]."
In , the South Korean government announced that "Gangnam Style" had brought in $ million to the country's audio sector, and it subsequently launched a campaign to further expand the K-Pop music industry overseas. According to the Bank of Korea, the country's services account recorded a surplus of US$ billion in the first nine months of this year, compared to a deficit of US$ billion last year. This was mainly due to the growing influence and popularity of K-pop songs such as "Gangnam Style." However, American journalist John Seabrook noted that by "satirizing standard K-pop tropes in Gangnam Style," Psy may have subverted the music genre's chances of making it big in the West.
Record executives in the music industry believe that music charts will increasingly be filled with YouTube-driven globalised acts from foreign countries. Sean Carey, a research fellow in the School of Social Sciences at the University of Roehampton, wrote that the flow of popular music will no longer be a single traffic route from North America and Europe to other parts of the globe, but will also move the other way as well. According to Adam Sherwin from The Independent, the global web demand for Gangnam Style had short-circuited the "traditional reluctance" of radio stations to play foreign-language songs. The song is also underlining a shift in how money is being made in the music business. Although Psy earned more than US$60, from music sales of "Gangnam Style" in South Korea alone, he and his music label YG Entertainment have raked in almost US$1 million from advertisements which appear on YouTube videos identified for using "Gangnam Style" in its content. The Harvard Business Review published an article written by Kevin Evers, who explained how "Gangnam Style" had changed Billboard's ranking methodology of its music charts. Instead of relying solely on radio plays and paid purchases, Billboard started to place a heavier emphasis on digital sales and YouTube views. As a result of the change, Gangnam Style moved up to the top position of Billboard's Hot Rap Songs music chart. According to the British Phonographic Industry's report based on Official Charts Company sales data, thanks to Psy's song and Carly Rae Jepsen's "Call Me Maybe," pop had become the UK's favourite musical genre of the year, taking the lion's share of the singles market (%) in 
|1.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)"|
|1.||"Gangnam Style / 2 Legit 2 Quit Mashup" (featuring MC Hammer)|
|1.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)" (featuring 2 Chainz and Tyga) (Diplo Remix)|
|2.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)" (Afrojack Remix)|
|3.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)" (Afrojack Remix) (Instrumental)|
|4.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)" (Instrumental)|
|1.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)"|
|2.||"Gangnam Style (강남스타일)" (Music Video)|
Credits and personnel
Credits adapted from Psy 6 (Six Rules), Part 1 EP liner notes and YG Entertainment official website.
Accolades and records
Awards and nominations
|Music program awards (South Korea)|
The song and its accompanying music video currently hold, or have attained, the following records:
- Most viewed K-pop video on YouTube – On September 1, , it overtook "Gee" by the 9-member K-Pop idol-group Girls' Generation with 89 million views.
- Most liked video on YouTube – On September 13, , it overtook "Party Rock Anthem" by the American electro recording duo LMFAO upon receiving million "likes", and subsequently won its first Guinness World Record one week later.
- First K-pop song to top the UK Singles Chart – On October 6, , the song reached number one of the UK singles chart and Psy became the first South Korean musician to achieve that feat.
- Most viewed video on YouTube – On November 24, , it overtook "Baby" by the Canadian singer-songwriter Justin Bieber after receiving more than million views.
- First video in Internet history to be viewed more than a billion times – On December 21, , it acquired its billionth view at around UTC.
- First video in Internet history to be viewed more than two billion times – On May 31, , it acquired its 2 billionth view. A second dance animation was added next to the view counter. They were removed in July 
Year-end media picks
"Gangnam Style" was ranked No. 25 on the Rolling Stone's 50 best songs of list and No. 8 on SPIN's 40 best songs of the year. The song also took the No. 8 spot on the Billboard 20 best K-Pop songs list by Jeff Benjamin and Jessica Oak, who commented "[the song] stands out not only for its slick, electronic production but also for its deeper critique on high-class society." According to MTV's list of the best songs, the song was ranked No. 8 with MTV news staff James Montgomery's comment: "'Gangnam' is either the track we, as a culture needed right now, or the track we, as a culture, deserved."TIME magazine chose it as the second best song of after Usher's "Climax," writing "The YouTube meme, a good-natured, mind-bendingly catchy lampoon  turned into a global obsession." The song was one of the best songs of the year on The New York Times pop critics' list and E! Online's No. 1 pick on the top 10 pop songs of list. Digital Spy ranked the song No. 20 among the 20 best singles of the year. It was voted the 12th best single of by The Village Voice's 40th annual Pazz & Jop critics' poll. Music critic Robert Christgau placed "Gangnam Style" as the No. 2 single on his Dean's List.
The music video for "Gangnam Style" was chosen as the best music video of by TIME. Melissa Locker of the magazine wrote "The catchy song paired with social satire and tongue-in-cheek vibe has spread so quickly it reminds us why videos are called viral. The video has sparked an International dance craze and catapulted Psy to international super stardom."Rolling Stone also ranked the video No. 1 on its "The Best Music Videos of " list, saying "The Korean auteur [Psy] conquered the world with his 'dress classy, dance cheesy' aesthetic, blurring the line between parody and celebration." The video took No. 4 position on the Digital Spy's list of 10 top pop music videos of the year.
The music video came in first with 21% rating in the Billboard.com's readers poll, beating "Where Have You Been" by Rihanna (19%) and "Beauty and a Beat" by Justin Bieber featuring Nicki Minaj (11%). The song was the most popular song played on New Year's Eve and the most sung song on the day, leaving "Auld Lang Syne" in second place for the first time since , on karaoke company Lucky Voice's online service in the United Kingdom.CNN readers picked "Gangnam Style" as the eighth best song of The Week (US edition) ranked the song's global popularity at No. 6 with the strapline "'Gangnam Style' takes over the world" on the 13 biggest pop culture moments of the year list. The phenomenon of the song and the video was also picked as one of the 's most viral moments in music by Wendy Geller of Yahoo! Music, and No. 2 on the top 20 music moments list after Whitney Houston's death by Billboard, being written "If there's one meme, song and face that has been truly inescapable in the second half of , it's South Korean rapper Psy and his outrageous 'Gangnam Style'."
On December 1, , YouTube announced that "Gangnam Style" had exceeded the number of views that are possible to store using a bit signed integer, that being 2,,, (231−1, or two billion). As a result, YouTube was forced to upgrade to using bit integers to store view numbers, with a maximum value of 9,,,,,, (263−1, or nine quintillion). "We never thought a video would be watched in numbers greater than a bit integer, but that was before we met Psy," stated a YouTube spokesperson.
Upon its release, "Gangnam Style" was an enormous hit. The song went straight to number one on the Gaon Singles Chart on the fourth week of July , with , digital downloads, and spent five consecutive weeks at the top position of the chart, tying it with IU's "Good Day" for the most weeks at number one single in the chart's history. In addition, the song became the first-place winner on various weekly chart shows such as M Countdown (three straight weeks) and Music Bank (a total of 16 weeks including a record consecutive-week). According to the Korea Music Content Industry Association, "Gangnam Style" became the best selling song of in South Korea with 3,, download sales.
The song debuted at number six on the BillboardKorea K-Pop Hot for the week of July 28,  It then topped the chart the week after and remained at the summit for five consecutive weeks, tying IU's record with "You and I" for the longest running number one song on the chart. The record, however, was broken by Lee Seung-gi's "Return" earned six weeks at the top spot from December to January  "Gangnam Style" took number one spot on the Billboard K-Pop Hot year-end chart.
In Oceania, "Gangnam Style" was a huge success. The single made its chart debut on the New Zealand Singles Chart at number 21 on September 3,  After two weeks, the song reached in the top ten and the following week topped the chart, becoming the first K-pop song and the first foreign language song in three decades to achieve that feat since German band Nena's "99 Luftballons" hit the top spot in March  The song remained atop the chart for two consecutive weeks before being deposed from the top spot by One Direction's "Live While We're Young." After one week of the band's reign, "Gangnam Style" regained its number one position and stayed at the top spot for a further four weeks, tallying a total of six nonconsecutive weeks atop the chart. The track was ranked in the top ten of the chart for 17 consecutive weeks before it fell to number 11 on the January 14, chart. The song has been certified 4× Platinum with sales exceeding 60, by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ). "Gangnam Style" was the second biggest-selling single of in the country behind Carly Rae Jepsen's "Call Me Maybe."
In Australia, the song debuted at number seven on the ARIA Singles Chart on September 17, , becoming the highest debut for the week. It reached number one on the chart just three weeks after its release, overtaking "Battle Scars" by Guy Sebastian featuring Lupe Fiasco, and spent six consecutive weeks at the summit, making it the second-longest running chart-topper for behind Flo Rida's "Whistle" remained at the pole position for seven weeks. As a result, Psy became the first artist to reach number one on the chart with a foreign-language song since Las Ketchup topped the chart with "The Ketchup Song" in September , and the eighth overall. In addition, "Gangnam Style" was the first Korean song to enter the chart and to climb to the top spot in Australian chart history. After the single spent the first 14 weeks in the top ten of the chart since its chart debut, it dropped to number 11 in its 15th week. The song, however, rebounded from the position to number three on the issue date of December 31, It descended to number 14 in its 18th week, ending a week in the top ten, and out of the top 20 the following week, placed at number  It has been certified 10× Platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA), with sales exceeding , copies. "Gangnam Style" was placed at number two on the ARIA Singles year-end chart behind Carly Rae Jepsen's "Call Me Maybe." The song is currently the fourth best-selling single in Australian music history.
In Europe, the song was successful as well, topping the charts in almost all countries. "Gangnam Style" made its first European chart appearance, entering the Danish Singles Chart at number 40 on August 3, It reached the top ten in its fifth week, and climbed to number four in its sixth. For the issue dated September 14, , the song became Psy's first number one on the chart, ending the one-week reign of the Danish rock band Nephew's "Hjertestarter." The song remained at the top position for seven consecutive weeks, tying it with "Somebody That I Used to Know" performed by Gotye featuring Kimbra for the longest running number one single on the chart for In its 24th week, it climbed back to the top, giving it its 8th week in that position. The single spent 22 straight weeks in the top ten of the chart. In January , the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI Denmark) certified the single 2× Platinum, denoting sales of 60, copies.
The song entered the UK Singles Chart at number on September 1, , and in its fourth week broke into the top 40 at number 
For the last two weeks YouTube views have been a decent (though not entirely consistent) barometer for who winds up in the bottom two on Dancing with the Stars each week; half of the shows results are determined by viewers voting at home, so popularity is just as crucial as dance quality. If that continues as we head into the upcoming two-night Disney heroes and villains event, could that spell trouble for country star Jimmie Allen and The Office actress Melora Hardin? Scroll down for the complete YouTube rankings following Britney Night, with viewership stats taken Friday afternoon.SEE‘Dancing with the Stars’ fans say The Miz and Cody Rigsby were better on ‘Britney Night’ than judges gave them credit for
Cobra Kai actor Martin Kove and Bling Empire star Christine Chiu had two of the three least watched dances from the season premiere, and they ended up in the bottom two on First Elimination night. And Chiu had one of the four least watched videos for First Elimination night before she landed in the bottom two again on Britney Night and was eliminated by the judges. So it their limited popularity with online watchers was a bad omen for their results on the show
However, Real Housewives star Kenya Moores results dont match up in the same way. She has gotten solid scores from the judges throughout the season, and her First Elimination cha cha was that weeks third most watched YouTube video, but she wound up in the bottom two anyway, narrowly avoiding elimination when two out of the three judges voted to save her. So obviously not everyone tuning in to YouTube is turning out to vote on Monday nights, and vice versa.
Nevertheless, Allen and Hardin have consistently been among the least viewed YouTube clips all season, so theres reason for them to be concerned considering what happened to Kove and Chiu already. Do you think their real viewer support is greater than these numbers indicate? See the stats below, and make your DWTS predictions here in our predictions center.SEE‘Dancing with the Stars’ week 3 slugfest: Will season 30’s battle of the sexes lead to outrageous eliminations? [WATCH]
1. JoJo Siwa (Argentine Tango) M views
2. Suni Lee (Foxtrot) K views
3. Olivia Jade (Tango) K views
4. Cody Rigsby (Jazz) K views
5. Mike The Miz Mizanin (Salsa) K views
6. Amanda Kloots (Foxtrot) K views
7. Kenya Moore (Tango) K views
8. Melanie C (Tango) K views
9. Matt James (Tango) K views
Brian Austin Green (Tango) K views
Iman Shumpert (Tango) 15$K views
Christine Chiu (Paso Doble) K views
Melora Hardin (Cha Cha) K views
Jimmie Allen (Salsa) K viewsPREDICT‘Dancing with the Stars’ now; change them until each Monday night’s show
Be sure to make your predictions so that the contestants can see how they’re faring in our racetrack odds. You can keep changing your predictions until just before the next episode airs every Monday on ABC. You’ll compete to win a spot on our leaderboard and eternal bragging rights. See our contest rules and sound off with other fans in our reality TV forum. Read more Gold Derby entertainment news.
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Google Chrome Privacy Whitepaper
Last modified: February 4, (Current as of Chrome )
This document describes the features in Chrome that communicate with Google, as well as with third-party services (for example, if you've changed your default search engine). This document also describes the controls available to you regarding how your data is used by Chrome. Here we’re focusing on the desktop version of Chrome; we touch only tangentially on Chrome OS and Chrome for Mobile. This document does not cover features that are still under development, such as features in the beta, dev and canary channel and active field trials, or Android apps on Chrome OS if Play Apps are enabled.
If you have a question about Google Chrome and Privacy that this document doesn’t answer, please feel free to ask it in the Community Forum. If you want to report a privacy issue, you can file it in our public bug tracker. For issues that include confidential information, please use this link. We’d be happy to hear from you.
Google Chrome uses a combined web address and search bar (we call it the “omnibox”) at the top of the browser window.
As you use the omnibox, your default search engine can suggest addresses and search queries that may be of interest to you. These suggestions make navigation and searching faster and easier, and are turned on by default. They can be turned off by unchecking "Autocomplete searches and URLs" in the “Sync and Google services” section of Chrome's settings.
When not in Incognito mode, in order to provide these suggestions, Chrome sends the text you've typed into the omnibox, along with a general categorization (e.g., "URL", "search query", or "unknown"), to your default search engine. Chrome will also send a signal to your default search engine when you focus in the omnibox, telling it to get ready to provide suggestions. That signal includes the URL of the currently displayed search engine results page. Your IP address and certain cookies are also sent to your default search engine with all requests, in order to return the results that are most relevant to you.
To provide suggestions and search results faster, Chrome may preconnect to your default search engine in the background. Chrome will not preconnect if you have either turned off “Preload pages for faster browsing and searching” in the “Cookies” part of “Privacy and security” section or "Autocomplete searches and URLs" in the “Sync and Google services” section of Chrome's settings. When Chrome preconnects, it resolves the search engine’s IP address and connects it to the search engine, exposing your IP address.
When in Incognito mode, in order to provide these suggestions, Chrome relies on an on-device model that does not communicate with your default search engine until you select a suggestion.
If Chrome determines that your typing may contain sensitive information, such as authentication credentials, local file names, or URL data that is normally encrypted, it will not send the typed text.
If Google is your default search engine, when you select one of the omnibox suggestions, Chrome sends your original search query, the suggestion you selected, and the position of the suggestion back to Google. This information helps improve the quality of the suggestion feature, and it's logged and anonymized in the same manner as Google web searches. Logs of these suggestion requests are retained for two weeks, after which 2% of the log data is randomly selected, anonymized, and retained in order to improve the suggestion feature.
If you've chosen to sync your Chrome history, and if Google is your default search engine, the URL of the page you’re viewing is sent to Google in order to provide better, contextually relevant suggestions. URLs are sent only for HTTP pages and HTTPS pages, not other schemes such as file: and ftp:. Additionally, Chrome may present website and search query suggestions as soon as you place the cursor in the omnibox, before you start typing. Chrome is in the process of transitioning to a new service to provide these on-focus suggestions. For most users on desktop versions of Chrome, the request and complete set of suggestions are retained on Google servers in order to further improve and personalize the feature. When the URL that triggered the set of suggestions is deleted from your history, the set of suggestions will stop influencing suggestions personalized to you, and will be deleted; otherwise they are retained in your Google account for a year. For a small portion of users on desktop versions of Chrome, and users on mobile versions of Chrome, the logging described in the previous paragraphs apply except that URLs are never included in the 2% sampling of log data.
On Android, your location will also be sent to Google via an X-Geo HTTP request header if Google is your default search engine, the Chrome app has the permission to use your geolocation, and you haven’t blocked geolocation for www.google.com (or country-specific origins such as www.google.de). Additionally, if your device has network location enabled (High Accuracy or Battery Saving Device Location mode in Android settings), the X-Geo header may also include visible network IDs (WiFi and Cell), used to geocode the request server-side. The X-Geo header will never be sent in Incognito mode. HTTPS will be required to include this header in the request. You can learn more about how to control the Android OS location sharing with apps on this article for Nexus, or find your device here if you do not use a Nexus. How to control location sharing with a site within Chrome is written in this article. See the Geolocation section of this whitepaper for more information on default geolocation permissions.
Additionally, if Google is your default search engine and you have enabled sync, omnibox may also show suggestions for your Google Drive files. You can turn this functionality off by disabling the “Drive suggestions” option in the “Sync and Google services” section of Chrome’s settings.
Additionally, when you use the omnibox to search for a single word, Chrome may send this word to your DNS server to see whether it corresponds to a host on your network, and may try to connect to the corresponding host. This gives you the option to navigate to that host instead of searching. For example, if your router goes by the hostname “router”, and you type “router” in the omnibox, you’re given the option to navigate to https://router/, as well as to search for the word “router” with your default search provider. This feature is not controlled by the "Use a prediction service to help complete searches and URLs" option because it does not involve sending data to your default search engine.
Chrome uses a service to predict which resources and pages are likely to be needed next in order to load pages more quickly. The prediction service uses navigation history, local heuristics, and data learned from Google’s search crawlers. Retrieving the data from Google's crawlers requires sending the URL of the current page to Google, and so it is only used if you’ve opted into "Make Searches and Browsing Better (Sends URLs of the pages you visit to Google)" and/or enabled Lite Mode. The prediction service may initiate actions such as DNS prefetching, TCP and TLS preconnection, and prefetching of web pages. To turn off network predictions, uncheck “Preload pages for faster browsing and searching” in the “Privacy and security > Cookies” section of Chrome’s settings on desktop, in the “Privacy” section of Chrome’s settings on Android, and in the “Bandwidth” section of Chrome’s settings on iOS.
To improve load times, the browser can be asked to prefetch links that you might click next. Chrome supports five types of prefetching:
- Chrome prefetching - can be initiated by Chrome itself whenever it detects a search query typed in the omnibox, a likely beginning of a URL you type often in the omnibox, or when you have Lite mode enabled and are visiting Google Search.
- Webpage prefetching - requested by one web page to prefetch another
- AMP prefetching - can be requested only by the Google Search App on Android to prefetch several accelerated mobile pages (AMP) articles and display them later in a Chrome Custom Tab
- CustomTabs prefetching - any Android app can request to prefetch several URLs to speed up displaying them later in a Chrome Custom Tab
- Privacy-preserving search result link prefetching - can be initiated by Chrome on Google Search result pages to prefetch links to other websites.
Four mechanisms preserve user privacy for search result link prefetches:
- Prefetching is restricted to domains for which Chrome doesn’t have a corresponding cookie.
- Passive fingerprinting surfaces such as User-Agent are bucketed or set to fixed values.
- Prefetches are limited to HTTPS links and tunneled through a CONNECT proxy operated by Google. Consequently, the TLS connection is established between Chrome and the origin so the proxy server cannot inspect the traffic, and requests to the origin come from a Google IP address instead of the user’s IP address. Google only learns about the destination domain and sub-resource domains that will be prefetched, which Google already knows because it generated the Search results page and crawled the page, respectively.
- Prefetched resources and cookies set by the prefetched domain are only persisted when you click the search result and visit the prefetched domain.
Controlling the feature. All prefetching types except webpage prefetching are controlled by Chrome’s prediction service setting. Webpage prefetching is allowed regardless of whether Chrome’s network prediction service feature is enabled.
Handling of cookies. Except for the privacy-preserving search result link prefetching case, the prefetched site is allowed to set and read its own cookies even if you don’t end up visiting the prefetched page, and prefetching is disabled if you have chosen to block third-party cookies. In the privacy-preserving search result link prefetching case, prefetching is disabled if you have a cookie for the site, and the site can only set a cookie once you click on the link that was prefetched.
Google search locale
If Google is set as your default search engine, Chrome will try to determine the most appropriate locale for Google search queries conducted from the omnibox in order to give you relevant search results based on your location. For example, if you were in Germany, your omnibox searches may go through google.de instead of google.com.
In order to do this, Chrome will send a request to google.com each time you start the browser. If you already have any cookies from the google.com domain, this request will also include these cookies, and is logged as any normal HTTPS request to google.com would be (see the description of “server logs” in the privacy key terms for details). If you do not have any cookies from google.com, this request will not create any.
New Tab page
The Chrome New Tab page may display suggestions for websites that you might want to visit.
In order to help you get started, Chrome may suggest content that is popular in your country or region. Chrome uses your IP address to identify your country or region.
Chrome tries to make personalized suggestions that are useful to you. For this, Chrome uses the sites you have visited from your local browsing history. On Android, the most popular languages of the sites you visited may also be sent to Google to provide suggestions in languages you prefer to read, and the device display DPI may be sent to format content for your device. To save data, Chrome may additionally send a hash of the content that Google provided to you the last time, so that you only download content when there is something new.
If you are signed into Chrome, suggestions are also based on data stored in your Google account activity. You can control the collection of data in your Google account at Activity controls and manage your account activity at My Activity. For example, if you sync your browsing history and have enabled its use in your Web & App activity, Google may suggest sites that relate to sites you have visited in the past. Chrome measures the quality of suggestions by sending Google information about the sets of suggestions that were displayed, and those that were selected.
On the desktop version of Chrome, you may also manually add shortcuts to websites that you regularly visit, or edit Chrome’s existing website suggestions. After you add, edit, or delete a shortcut to a website, the Chrome New Tab page will not suggest any new websites to you.
Suggestions generated from your browsing history will be removed once you clear your browsing history. However, if you customized your suggestions, they will not be removed.
For Chrome on Android, in certain countries, Chrome may download the content of the New Tab page suggestions from Google, for use while offline. Chrome sends to Google a cookieless request with the URL for each suggestion, along with Chrome’s user agent string, in order to render the content. You can remove downloaded content by clearing Chrome’s cache data, or by opening the Downloads menu and selecting individual pages to delete. You can disable this feature by disabling “Download articles for you on Wi-Fi” in Chrome’s Downloads settings.
On mobile versions of Chrome, if you’re signed in to Chrome and have the Web & App activity setting enabled for your account, your preferences for the suggested articles can be modified or removed using the “Manage Interests” option from the three dots menu. Your preferences will be sent to Google so that better suggestions are provided to you in the future. For example, if you indicate that you’re not interested in a particular topic or publisher, suggestions about that topic or publisher will not be shown in the future. Likewise, you can indicate that you’re not interested in a specific article via the “Hide story” option in the article’s three dots menu. Suggestions are also personalized based on your interactions with the suggested articles (for example, tapping on or ignoring an article). You can manage this interaction data, which is stored in the Discover section of your Google account, at My Activity. Google may use anonymized and aggregated interest and interaction data from you to improve the quality of suggested articles for other users. For instance, if you view or open a suggestion it might be suggested more often, while if you report its contents as inappropriate it might stop being suggested.
For desktop and Android versions of Chrome, when you open a new tab, Chrome loads a New Tab page customized by your default search engine (e.g., google.com) if it’s available. This page is preloaded in the background and refreshed periodically so that it opens quickly. Your IP address and cookies, as well as your current browser theme, are sent to your search engine with each refresh request so that the New Tab page can be correctly displayed. See the Embedded Search API for more details. Your search engine may also record your interactions with the New Tab page.
The New Tab page content may be designed by your default search provider. Suggested websites are embedded by Chrome into the New Tab page in a way that does not expose them to your default search provider.
If your default search provider is Google, the New Tab page also contains a web address and search bar that behaves like the omnibox.
This information about the New Tab page may not apply if you've installed an extension that overrides the New Tab page.
Touch to Search
If you've enabled "Touch to Search" on Chrome Mobile you can search for terms by selecting them.
When you select a word, the word, the surrounding text, the languages you speak (from Chrome's Languages settings), and the home country of your device's SIM card are sent to Google to identify recommended search terms (for example, selecting "whale" on a site about the blue whale would lead to the selection expanding to show "blue whale"). The selected word is logged in accordance with standard Google logging policies, and the surrounding text and home country are logged only when the page is already in Google's search index. If you have turned on “Make searches and browsing better”, the URL of the page is also sent and logged, and is used to improve your query suggestions.
When Google returns a search suggestion, a card appears that may present an action or additional information related to the search. Opening this card is considered a regular search and navigation on Google, so standard logging policies apply.
Adjusting a selection causes a search for the exact selection. For example, if the user selects "climate" and the selection is automatically expanded to "climate change", the user can adjust the selection back to just "climate" and opening the panel would show full search results for "climate" rather than "climate change". Saying “Ok Google” after selecting a word provides the word and its surrounding text as context for the Google Assistant.
Touch to Search is enabled in a limited mode by default: potentially privacy-sensitive data, such as the URL and surrounding text, is not sent for HTTPS pages. Touch to Search can be fully enabled and disabled in the card or in the Chrome privacy settings.
Search with Google Lens
On Android Chrome, if Google is selected as the default search engine and a recent version of the Google app is installed on your device, touching & holding on an image will present you with an option to initiate a search with Google Lens.
A tap on that menu item will redirect you to the Lens experience in the Google App and the image bytes of the selected image will be sent to the Google Lens app. For non-incognito users, the name of the currently signed-in account (if applicable), image tag attributes, and Chrome experiments may also be sent to the Google App. This information is used to improve the user experience within the Lens app.
Triggering a Lens search is considered a regular search and navigation on Google, so standard logging policies apply.
Safe Browsing protection
Google Chrome includes an optional feature called "Safe Browsing" to help protect you against phishing, social engineering, malware, unwanted software, malicious ads, intrusive ads, and abusive websites or extensions. You can find more information at safebrowsing.google.com about how Safe Browsing protects you in Chrome and other Google products. Safe Browsing is designed specifically to protect your privacy and is also used by other popular browsers.
You can find settings for Safe Browsing in the “Privacy and security > Security” section of Chrome’s settings. When Safe Browsing is enabled in the “Standard protection” mode (pictured below), Chrome contacts Google's servers periodically to download the most recent Safe Browsing list of unsafe sites including sites associated with phishing, social engineering, malware, unwanted software, malicious ads, intrusive ads, and abusive websites or Chrome extensions. The most recent copy of this list is stored locally on your system. Chrome checks the URL of each site you visit or file you download against this local list. If you navigate to a URL that appears on the list, Chrome sends a partial URL fingerprint (the first 32 bits of a SHA hash of the URL) to Google for verification that the URL is indeed dangerous. Chrome also sends a partial URL fingerprint when a site requests a potentially dangerous permission, so that Google can protect you if the site is malicious. Google cannot determine the actual URL from this information.
In addition to the URL check described above, Chrome also conducts client-side checks. If a website looks suspicious, Chrome sends a subset of likely phishing and social engineering terms found on the page to Google, in order to determine whether the website should be considered malicious. These client-side checks also include comparisons of the visual appearance of the page to a list of images of login pages. If a website appears similar to a page on this list, Chrome will send the URL and the matched entry on the list to Google to determine whether the page is a likely phishing attempt. Chrome can also help protect you from phishing if you type one of your previously saved passwords into an uncommon site. In this case Chrome sends the URL and referrers of the page to Google to see if the page might be trying to steal your password.
If you encounter a website that is on Chrome’s Safe Browsing list, you may see a warning like the one shown below.
You can visit our malware warning test page or social engineering warning test page to see the above example in action. For more information about the warning pages, see Manage warnings about unsafe sites.
Additionally, if you've opted into “Make Searches and Browsing Better (sends URLs of the pages you visit to Google)”, Chrome sends a request to Safe Browsing each time you visit a page that isn’t in Chrome’s local list of safe sites in order to gather the latest reputation of that website (we call this mechanism “real-time checks”). If you sync your browsing history without a sync passphrase, this request also contains a temporary authentication token tied to your Google account to provide better protections to some users whose account may be under attack. If the website is deemed unsafe by Safe Browsing, you may see a warning like the one shown above. This mechanism is designed to catch unsafe sites that switch domains very quickly or hide from Google's crawlers. Pages loaded in Incognito are not checked using this mechanism.
You can also opt in to reporting additional data relevant to security to help improve Safe Browsing and security on the Internet. You can opt in by turning on the “Help improve security on the web for everyone” setting in the “Privacy and security > Security” section of Chrome's settings. You can also opt in from the warning page shown above. If you opt in, Chrome will send an incident report to Google every time you receive a warning, visit a suspicious page, and on a very small fraction of sites where Chrome thinks there could be threats, to help Safe Browsing learn about the new threats you may be encountering. Additionally, some downloaded files that are suspicious and show a warning may be sent to Google for investigation each time they are encountered. All reports are sent to Google over an encrypted channel and can include URLs, headers, and snippets of content from the page and they never include data from browsing you do in Incognito mode. If Chrome discovers unwanted or malicious software on your machine, the reports may also include details about malicious files and registry entries. This data is used only to improve Safe Browsing and to improve security on the Internet. For example, Chrome reports some SSL certificate chains to Google to help improve the accuracy of Chrome’s SSL warnings. As part of Certificate Transparency, Chrome also reports to Google a sampling of information about SSL certificates and any observed signed certificate timestamps (SCTs). These reports help Google verify that the third-party logs in the Certificate Transparency system are behaving honestly, which helps ensure that HTTPS connections can be trusted. Chrome does not send reports for connections authenticated with certificates that chain to locally installed roots.
Please be aware that if you disable the Safe Browsing feature, Chrome will no longer be able to protect you from websites that try to steal your information or install harmful software. We don't recommend turning it off.
If you are a webmaster, developer, or network admin, you can find more relevant information about Safe Browsing on this page.
Safe Browsing also protects you from abusive extensions and malicious software. When Chrome starts, and on each update of the Safe Browsing list, Chrome scans extensions installed in your browser against the Safe Browsing list. If an extension on the list is found, Chrome will disable the extension, offer you relevant information and may provide an option for you to remove the extension or re-enable it. Chrome also sends the particular extension ID to Safe Browsing.Extensions can also be disabled by Chrome if they're determined to be malicious during an update. If you attempt to download a file on Chrome’s Safe Browsing list, you'll see a warning like this one:
To warn you about potentially dangerous files, like the picture shown above, Chrome checks the URL of potentially dangerous file types you download against a list of URLs that have been verified. Potentially dangerous file types include both executables and commonly-abused document types. This list is stored locally on your computer and updated regularly. Chrome does not send information to Google for files you download from URLs in this list, or if the file is signed by a verified publisher. For all other unverified potentially dangerous file downloads, Chrome sends Google the information needed to help determine whether the download is harmful, including some or all of the following: information about the full URL of the site or file download, all related referrers and redirects, code signing certificates, file hashes, and file header information. Chrome may then show a warning like the one pictured above.
If you are enrolled in Google's Advanced Protection Program, Chrome will show you additional warnings when you download files but where Safe Browsing is unable to ascertain they are safe.
Chrome helps protect you against password phishing by checking with Google when you enter your password on an uncommon page. Chrome keeps a local list of popular websites that Safe Browsing found to be safe. If Chrome detects that you have entered your Google account password or one of your passwords stored in Chrome’s password manager on a website that’s not on the list, it sends a request to Safe Browsing to gather the reputation of that website. The verdict received from Safe Browsing is usually cached on your device for 1 week. For users who have enabled the "Help improve security on the web for everyone" setting, Chrome will ignore the list of popular websites for a small fraction of visits, to test the accuracy of that list.
If the reused password is your Google account password and the verdict for the website is that it is phishing, Chrome will suggest that you change your Google account password to avoid losing access to your account.
If you sync your browsing history without a sync passphrase, or if you accept the “Protect account” option from the dialog shown below, Chrome sends a request to Google to protect your account. This request contains the URL where the phishing attempt happened, and the verdict received from Safe Browsing.
If you've opted into “Help improve security on the web for everyone”, Chrome also sends a request to Safe Browsing each time you start to enter a password on a page that isn’t in Chrome’s local list. In addition, the request Chrome sends to Safe Browsing to determine the reputation of the website on which you reuse your password includes the list of websites for which you saved this password in Chrome’s password manager (but not the password itself).
If Chrome detects that your settings have been tampered with, Chrome reports the URL of the last downloaded potentially dangerous file, and information about the nature of the possible tampering, to the Safe Browsing service.
Chrome asks your permission before using certain web features (APIs) that might have associated risks. Some sites trigger these permission requests or use the corresponding APIs in ways that are abusive or that users find undesirable or annoying. On these sites Chrome may send the partial URL fingerprint to Google to verify if a less intrusive UI should be used to surface the request.
If you’ve opted into “Enhanced protection” (pictured above), in addition to all the protections described above for “Standard protection” mode, Chrome will use the real-time checks mechanism described above for checking the Safe Browsing reputation of top-level URLs and iframe URLs. If you're signed in to Chrome, the requests for performing real-time checks and the requests for checking potentially dangerous file downloads contain a temporary authentication token tied to your Google account that is used to protect you across Google apps. Enhanced protection also enables reporting additional data relevant to security to help improve Safe Browsing and overall web security, and it enables Chrome’s password breach detection. When browsing in incognito or guest mode, these extra checks do not occur, and Enhanced protection mode operates the same way as Standard protection.
For all Safe Browsing requests and reports, Google logs the transferred data in its raw form and retains this data for up to 30 days. Google collects standard log information for Safe Browsing requests, including an IP address and one or more cookies. After at most 30 days, Safe Browsing deletes the raw logs, storing only calculated data in an anonymized form that does not include your IP addresses or cookies. Additionally, Safe Browsing requests won’t be associated with your Google Account, except if the request includes the temporary authentication token described above. They are, however, tied to the other Safe Browsing requests made from the same device.
For Chrome on iOS 13 and later, Apple allows for connecting to multiple Safe Browsing services. This means that Chrome may connect to a third-party Safe Browsing service instead of the Google one. Apple determines which Safe Browsing service to connect to based on factors like your device locale.
Google Chrome includes a Safety check feature in settings. Running the Safety check verifies whether the browser is up to date, whether Safe Browsing is enabled, whether your passwords have been exposed as a part of a data breach, on Desktop whether you have potentially harmful extensions installed, and on Windows whether unwanted software has been found on your device.
Unwanted software protection
The Windows version of Chrome is able to detect and remove certain types of software that violate Google's Unwanted Software Policy. If left in your system, this software may perform unwanted actions, such as changing your Chrome settings without your approval. Chrome periodically scans your device to detect potentially unwanted software. In addition, if you have opted in to automatically report details of possible security incidents to Google, Chrome will report information about unwanted software, including relevant file metadata and system settings linked to the unwanted software found on your computer.
If you perform an unwanted software check on your computer from the Settings page, Chrome reports information about unwanted software and your system. System information includes metadata about programs installed or running on your system that could be associated with harmful software, such as: services and processes, scheduled tasks, system registry values commonly used by malicious software, command-line arguments of Chrome shortcuts, Windows proxy settings, and software modules loaded into Chrome or the network stack. You can opt out of sharing this data by deselecting the checkbox next to "Report details to Google" before starting the scan.
If unwanted software is detected, Chrome will offer you an option to clean it up by using the Chrome Cleanup Tool. This will quarantine detected malicious files, delete harmful extensions and registry keys, and reset your settings. The Chrome Cleanup Tool also reports information about unwanted software and your system to Google, and again you can opt out of sharing this data by deselecting the checkbox next to "Report details to Google" before starting the cleanup.
On Android versions Lollipop and older, when Chrome detects a network change, it sends a cookieless request to http://connectivitycheck.gstatic.com/generate_ or http://clients4.google.com/generate_ to determine whether you’re offline and display an offline indicator.
Desktop versions of Chrome and the Google Chrome Apps Launcher use Google Update to keep you up to date with the latest and most secure versions of software. In order to provide greater transparency and to make the technology available to other applications, the Google Update technology is open source.
Google Update requests include information necessary for the update process, such as the version of Chrome, its release channel, basic hardware information, and update errors that have been encountered. The update requests also send Google information that helps us understand how many people are using Google Chrome and the Chrome Apps Launcher ⎼ specifically, whether the software was used in the last day, the number of days since the last time it was used, the total number of days it has been installed, and the number of active profiles. Google Update also periodically sends a non-unique four-letter tag that contains information about how you obtained Google Chrome. This tag is not personally identifiable, does not encode any information about when you obtained Google Chrome, and is the same as everyone who obtained Google Chrome the same way.
Because Chrome OS updates the entire OS stack, Google Update on Chrome OS also sends the current Chrome OS version and hardware model information to Google in order to ensure that the correct software updates and hardware manufacturer customizations such as apps, wallpaper, and help articles are delivered. This information is not personally identifiable, and is common to all users of Chrome OS on the same revision of device.
Unlike the desktop versions of Chrome, the delivery and management of updates for mobile versions of Chrome are managed through the app stores for Android and iOS. Mobile versions of Chrome utilize the servers described above for counting active installations and for user-initiated checks for updates.
Chrome extensions and applications that you’ve installed are kept up to date with a similar system used for updating desktop versions of Chrome. These update requests include similar information (such as the application ID, when the application was last used, and how long it’s been installed). We use these requests to determine the aggregate popularity and usage of applications and extensions. If you are using an extension or application restricted to a certain audience, authentication tokens are sent with the update requests for these add-ons. For security reasons, Chrome also occasionally sends a cookieless request to the Chrome Web Store, in order to verify that installed extensions and applications that claim to be from the store are genuine.
In order to keep updates as small as possible, Google Chrome is internally split into a variety of components, each of which can be updated independently. Each component is uniquely identified via an ID that is shared among all Google Chrome installations (e.g., “fmeadaodfnidclnjhlkdgjkolmhmfofk”). An update request for a component contains this ID, the hash of the previous download (called a "fingerprint"), and the component’s version. Because every installation has the same ID, and downloads of the same component have the same fingerprint, none of this information is personally identifiable.
If you install web apps on an Android device, a Google server is responsible for creating a native Android package that can be verified for authenticity by Chrome. When Chrome is updated or notices that the web app's manifest has changed, Chrome asks the server for a new version of the Android package in a cookieless request. If the information needed to create the native Android package cannot be acquired by the server (e.g., because the information is behind a corporate firewall), Chrome sends it to Google and an Android package is created that is unique to you. It contains a unique and random identifier that is not tied to your identity.
Chrome may also download and run a binary executable (e.g., as part of the software update or to improve Safe Browsing protection). These executables are cryptographically signed and verified before execution. Chrome may download further static resources like dictionaries on demand to reduce the size of the installer.
On Windows and OS X versions of Chrome, the recovery component tries to repair Google Update when it’s broken. After the relevant binary is executed, Google Update uploads statistics on the actions that were performed. These statistics contain no personally identifiable information.
On desktop platforms, Chrome uses network time to verify SSL certificates, which are valid only for a specified time. At random intervals or when Chrome encounters an expired SSL certificate, Chrome may send requests to Google to obtain the time from a trusted source. These requests are more frequent if Chrome believes the system clock is inaccurate. These requests contain no cookies and are not logged on the server.
In order to measure the success rate of Google Chrome downloads and installations of the Windows version of Google Chrome, a randomly-generated token is included with Google Chrome's installer. This token is sent to Google during the installation process to confirm the success of that particular installation. A new token is generated for every install. It is not associated with any personal information, and is deleted once Google Chrome runs and checks for updates the first time.
For Chrome to know how many active installations it has, the mobile version of Chrome sends a ping to Google with a salted hash of a device identifier on an ongoing basis. The desktop version of Chrome does not send any stable identifier to count active installations. Instead an anonymous message to Google with a timestamp of the last ping is used to infer number of active installations.
Measuring effectiveness of a promotion
Chrome utilizes two measurements to understand how effective a promotional campaign has been: how many Chrome installations are acquired through a promotional campaign, and how much Chrome usage and traffic to Google is driven by a campaign.
To measure installations or reactivations of Chrome through a campaign, Chrome will send a token or an identifier unique to your device to Google at the first launch of Chrome, as well as the first search using Google. On desktop versions of Chrome, a token unique to your device is generated. The same token will be sent if Chrome is later reinstalled at first launch and at first use of the Omnibox after reinstallation or reactivation. Rather than storing the token on the computer, it is generated when necessary by using built-in system information that is scrambled in an irreversible manner. On iOS, Chrome uses the IDFA for counting installations acquired by a campaign, and it can be reset in iOS settings.
To measure searches and Chrome usage driven by a particular campaign, Chrome inserts a promotional tag, not unique to you or your device, in the searches you perform on Google. This non-unique tag contains information about how Chrome was obtained, the week when Chrome was installed, and the week when the first search was performed. For desktop versions of Chrome, Chrome generates a promotional tag, if the promotional installation token described in the previous paragraph indicates that Chrome has been installed or reactivated by a campaign on a device which has not been associated with any campaign yet. For Chrome on Mobile, a promotional tag is always sent regardless of the source of installations.
The promotional tag is generated using a software library called "RLZ" and looks similar to “1T4ADBR_enUSUS”. The RLZ library was fully open-sourced in June For more information, please see the In the Open, for RLZ post on the Chromium blog and the article “How To Read An RLZ String”. On Android, this promotional tag can also be a readable string like "android-hms-tmobile-us" instead of an RLZ string, and is not unique to either you or your device.
This non-unique promotional tag is included when performing searches via Google (the tag appears as a parameter beginning with "rlz=" when triggered from the Omnibox, or as an “x-rlz-string” HTTP header). We use this information to measure the searches and Chrome usage driven by a particular promotion.
If usage statistics and crash reports are enabled, the RLZ string is sent along with the report. This allows us to improve Chrome based on variations that are limited to specific geographic regions.
For the desktop version of Chrome, you can opt-out of sending this data to Google by uninstalling Chrome, and installing a version downloaded directly from www.google.com/chrome. To opt-out of sending the RLZ string in Chrome OS, press Ctrl + Alt + T to open the crosh shell, type rlz disable followed by the enter key, and then reboot your device.
Usage statistics and crash reports
Chrome has a feature to automatically send usage statistics and crash reports to Google in order to help improve Chrome’s feature set and stability.
Usage statistics contain information such as system information, preferences, user interface feature usage, responsiveness, performance, and memory usage. Crash reports contain system information gathered at the time of the crash, and may contain web page URLs, actions taken by the user before the crash, and/or personal information depending on what was happening at the time of the crash. This feature is enabled by default for Chrome installations of version 54 or later. You can control the feature in the "Sync and Google services" section of Chrome's settings.
When this feature is enabled, Google Chrome stores a randomly generated unique token on your device, which is sent to Google along with your usage statistics and crash reports. The token does not contain any personal information and is used to de-duplicate reports and maintain accuracy in statistics. This token is deleted when the feature is disabled and a new token is regenerated when the feature is enabled again.
By default, the usage statistics do not include any personal information. However, if you're signed in to Chrome and have enabled Chrome sync, Chrome may combine your declared age and gender from your Google account with our statistics to help us build products better suited for your demographics. This demographic data is not included in crash reports.
Along with usage statistics and crash reports, Chrome also reports anonymous, randomized data that is constructed in a manner which is not linked to the unique token, and which ensures that no information can be inferred about any particular user's activity. This data collection mechanism is summarized on the Google research blog, and full technical details have been published in a technical report and presented at the ACM Computer and Communications Security conference.
Chrome will also anonymously report to Google if requests to websites operated by Google fail or succeed in order to detect and fix problems quickly.
If you have also turned on “Make searches and browsing better (Sends URLs of pages you visit to Google)” in the “Sync and Google services” section of Chrome’s settings, Chrome usage statistics include information about the web pages you visit and your usage of them. The information will also include the URLs and statistics related to downloaded files. If you sync extensions, these statistics will also include information about the extensions that have been installed from Chrome Web Store. The URLs and statistics are sent along with a unique device identifier that can be reset by turning off “Make searches and browsing better” in the “Sync and Google services” section of Chrome’s settings or by turning off usage statistics and crash reports. The usage statistics are not tied to your Google account. Google only stores usage statistics associated with published extensions, and URLs that are known by Google’s web crawlers. We use this information to improve our products and services, for example, by identifying web pages which load slowly; this gives us insight into how to best improve overall Chrome performance. We also make some statistics available externally, through efforts like the Chrome User Experience Report. Externally published reports are conducted in highly aggregated manner to not reveal individual user's identity.
On iOS, if you are syncing your browsing history without a sync passphrase, Chrome reports usage for certain URLs that other Google apps could open. For example, when you tap on an email address, Chrome presents a dialog that allows you to choose between opening with Google Gmail or other mail apps installed on your device. The usage information also includes which apps were presented to you, which one was selected, and if a Google app was installed. Chrome does not log the actual URL tapped. If you are signed in, this usage is tied to your Google account. If you are signed out, the information is sent to Google with a unique device identifier that can be regenerated by resetting the Google Usage ID found in Chrome settings. The raw reports are deleted within 60 days, after which only the aggregated statistics remain.
Google Surveys in Chrome
In Chrome on Android and Desktop, when you have "send usage statistics" enabled, you may be randomly selected to participate in surveys to evaluate consumer satisfaction with Chrome features. If you are selected, Chrome requests a survey from Google for you. If a survey is available, Chrome then asks you to answer the survey and submit responses to Google.
The survey also records basic metrics about your actions, such as time spent looking at the survey and elements that the user clicked. These metrics are sent to Google even if you do not fully complete the survey.
Google uses strategies to ensure that surveys are spread evenly across users and not repeatedly served to a single user. On Android, Chrome stores a randomly generated unique token on the device. On Desktop, Chrome uses a cookie to connect with the server. This token or cookie is used solely for the survey requests and does not contain any personal information. If you disable sending usage statistics, the token or cookie will be cleared.
Suggestions for spelling errors
Desktop versions of Chrome can provide smarter spell-checking by sending text you type into the browser to Google's servers, allowing you to apply the same spell-checking technology that’s used by Google products like Docs. If this feature is enabled, Chrome sends the entire contents of text fields as you type in them to Google, along with the browser’s default language. Google returns a list of suggested spellings that are displayed in the context menu. Cookies are not sent along with these requests. Requests are logged temporarily and anonymously for debugging and quality improvement purposes.
This feature is disabled by default; to turn it on, click “Ask Google for suggestions” in the context menu that appears when you right-click on a misspelled word. You can also turn this feature on or off with the “Enhanced spell check” checkbox in the “Sync and Google services” section of Chrome settings. When the feature is turned off, spelling suggestions are generated locally without sending data to Google's servers.
Mobile versions of Chrome rely on the operating system to provide spell-checking.
Google Chrome’s built-in translation feature helps you read more of the Web, regardless of the language of the web page. The feature is enabled by default.
Translation can be disabled at any time in Chrome’s settings.
Language detection is done entirely using a client-side library, and does not involve any Google servers. For translation, the contents of a web page are only sent to Google if you decide to have it translated. You can do that on an individual basis on each page that shows a translation option or for all pages in a specific language by choosing “Always translate” in the Translate UI. Additionally, you can do so by clicking on a translated search result on the Google Search Results Page.
If you’ve chosen to sync your Chrome history, statistics about the languages of pages you visit and about your interactions with the translation feature will be sent to Google to improve Chrome’s understanding of the languages you speak and when Chrome should offer to translate text for you.
Image Descriptions for screen reader users
Chrome can provide automatic descriptions for users who are visually impaired by sending the contents of images on pages you visit to Google's servers. This feature is only enabled when Chrome detects that the user has a screen reader running and if the user explicitly enables it in the page context menu. Cookies are not sent along with these requests. Chrome fetches the list of supported languages from Google's servers and then requests descriptions in the most appropriate language given the current web page and the user's language preferences. Requests are not logged.
Sign In to Chrome and sync
You have the option to use the Chrome browser while signed in to your Google Account, with or without sync enabled.
On desktop versions of Chrome, signing into or out of any Google web service, like google.com, signs you into or out of Chrome. On Chrome on Android, when you sign into any Google web service, Chrome may offer you to sign in with the accounts that are already signed in on the device. Signing into Chrome via this dialog doesn’t turn on sync. If you want to just sign in to the Google web service and not to Chrome, you can dismiss the dialog and enter your credentials manually in the web form in the background. If you are signed in to Chrome, Chrome may offer to save your passwords, payment cards and related billing information to your Google Account. Chrome may also offer you the option of filling passwords or payment cards from your Google Account into web forms. If you would like to sign into Google web services, like google.com, without Chrome asking whether you want to save your info to your Google Account, you can turn off Chrome sign-in.
When you’re signed-in and have enabled sync with your Google Account, your personal browsing data information is saved in your Google Account so you may access it when you sign in and sync to Chrome on other computers and devices. Synced data can include bookmarks, saved passwords, open tabs, browsing history, extensions, addresses, phone numbers, payment methods, and more. In advanced sync settings, you can choose which types of data to synchronize with this device. By default, all syncable data types are enabled. You can turn sync on or off in the “You and Google” section of Chrome settings.
If you have turned on sync and signed out of the account you are syncing to, sync will pause sending all syncable data to Google until you sign back in with the same account. Some sync data types (such as bookmarks and passwords) that are saved locally while sync is paused will automatically be synced to your account after you sign back in with the same account.
On mobile versions of Chrome, you can turn sync on or off in Chrome settings. This can be done for any account that has already been added to the mobile device without authenticating again.
On both desktop and mobile, signing into Chrome keeps you signed into Google web services until you sign out of Chrome. On mobile, signing into Chrome will keep you signed in with all Google Accounts that have been added to the device. On desktop, it will keep you signed in with all Google Accounts that you added from a Google web service, unless you have set “Clear cookies and site data when you quit Chrome” in your cookie settings.
On Android and desktop, Chrome signals to Google web services that you are signed into Chrome by attaching an X-Chrome-Connected header to any HTTPS requests to Google-owned domains. On iOS, the CHROME_CONNECTED cookie is used instead. On Android, Chrome sends the X-Chrome-Connected header to accounts.google.com to indicate it is eligible for account consistency (meaning that you can sign in to Chrome and Google web services with the Google Accounts already present on your device). This allows those Google web services to update their UI accordingly. On desktop, Chrome sends the X-Chrome-ID-Consistency-Request header with all HTTPS requests to account.google.com if the “Allow Chrome sign-in” setting is enabled. If you are using a managed device, your system admin may disable the sign in feature or require that data be deleted when you disconnect your account.
Users can share phone numbers and text between their devices (mobile or desktop) when they are signed-in to Chrome. The transferred data is encrypted during transit and Google cannot read or store the content. To let users select the device to share with, Chrome collects the following information about devices on which a user is signed-in and stores that in the user's Google account: device manufacturer, model number, Chrome version, OS, and device type.
Google uses your personal synchronized data to provide you a consistent browsing experience across your devices, and to customize features in Chrome. You can manage your synchronized history by going to chrome://history in your Chrome browser. If “Include history from Chrome and other apps in your Web & App Activity” is checked on the Web & App Activity controls page, Google also uses your synchronized browsing data to provide personalized Google products and services to you. You can change your preference any time, and manage individual activities associated with your Google account.
The paragraph above describes the use of your personal browsing history. Google also uses aggregated and anonymized synchronized browsing data to improve other Google products and services. For example, we use this information to improve Google Search by helping to detect mobile friendly pages, pages which have stopped serving content, and downloads of malware.
For sync users, Google may collect additional information derived from Chrome history for the Federated Learning of Cohorts (FLoC) experiment. FLoC is one of the open standards proposed as part of the Privacy Sandbox, an initiative to make the web more private and secure for users while also supporting publishers. Chrome’s implementation of FLoC assigns each user to an interest cohort - a cluster representing a large group of users who share similar browsing habits - and periodically updates this assignment by similarity-hashing recently visited URLs from navigation history. As a first step in the FLoC experiments, Google is logging users' cohorts via sync if you are syncing history without a custom passphrase, and if “Include Chrome history and activity from sites, apps, and devices that use Google services” in your Google Activity Controls as well as “Also use your activity & information from Google services to personalize ads on websites and apps that partner with Google to show ads” in your Google Ad Settings are enabled. Google will use logged interest cohorts to perform an internal privacy analysis before making them available to the web ecosystem for broader testing.
If you would like to use Google's cloud to store and sync your Chrome data without allowing any personalized and aggregated use by Google as described in the previous paragraphs, you can choose to encrypt all of your synced data with a sync passphrase. If you choose this option, it’s important to note that Google won’t have access to the sync passphrase you set; we won’t be able to help you recover data if you forget the passphrase. Regardless of how you choose to encrypt your data, all data is always sent over secure SSL connections to Google’s servers.
Google will store the metadata about the days on which sync was running to improve other Google products and services.
Chrome may help you sign in with credentials you've saved in Android apps on websites that are associated with the respective apps. Likewise, credentials you've saved for websites can be used to help you sign into related Android apps. You can view the credentials you've saved in Chrome and Android by visiting passwords.google.com in any browser. If you've saved credentials for Android applications, Chrome periodically sends a cookieless request to Google to get an updated list of websites that are associated with those applications. To stop websites and Android apps from automatically signing in using credentials you previously saved, you can turn off Auto Sign-In on passwords.google.com or in Chrome settings under "Autofill > Passwords". For more details see this article.
To make the history page easier to use, Chrome displays favicons of visited URLs. For Chrome browsing history from your other devices, these favicons are fetched from Google servers via cookieless requests that only contain the given URL and device display DPI. Favicons are not fetched for users with sync passphrase.
On the iOS version of Chrome, if you sync your browsing history without a sync passphrase and your browser’s usage statistics and crash reports setting is also enabled, your usage statistics and crash reports will include statistics about the pages you visit. You can read more in the Usage statistics and crash reports section of this Whitepaper.
Autofill and Password Management
Google Chrome has a form autofill feature that helps you fill out forms on the web more quickly. Autofill is enabled by default, but it can be turned off at any time in Chrome’s settings.
If Autofill is enabled and you encounter a web page containing a form, Chrome sends some information about that form to Google. This information includes the basic structure of the form, a hash of the web page's hostname as well as form identifiers (such as field names); randomized representation of the form identifiers, and if you have turned on the "Make searches and browsing better (Sends URLs of pages you visit to Google)" setting, also a randomized representation of the web page's URL. In response, Chrome receives a prediction of each field’s data type (for example, “field X is a phone number, and field Y is a country”). This information helps Chrome match up your locally stored Autofill data with the fields of the form.
If Autofill is enabled when you submit a form, Chrome sends Google some information about the form along with the types of data you submitted. This information includes a hash of the web page’s hostname, as well as form identifiers (such as field names), the basic structure of the form, and the observed data types for the fields (i.e., field X was a phone number, field Y was a country). The values you entered into the form are not sent to Google. This information helps Chrome improve the quality of its form-filling over time.
You can manage your Autofill entries via Chrome’s settings, and you can edit or delete saved information at any time. Chrome will never store full credit card information (card number, cardholder name, and expiration date) without explicit confirmation. In order to prevent offering to save cards you have shown disinterest in saving, Chrome stores the last four digits of detected credit cards locally on the device. If you scan your credit card using a phone camera, the recognition is performed locally.
Chrome may help you sign in to websites with credentials you've saved to Chrome's password manager or your Google Account by autofilling sign-in forms, by offering you an account picker, or by automatically signing you in. You can manage and delete your saved credentials in the “Forms and passwords” section of Chrome’s settings. If you enable password management, the same kind of data about forms as described above is sent to Google to interpret password forms correctly. To enable Chrome to offer password generation that meets site-specific requirements, Chrome uploads a randomized vote on a specific password characteristic to the server once a user-created password is stored. If stored credentials are used for the first time in a username field which was already filled differently by the website itself, Chrome also transmits a short one-byte hash of the prefilled value. This allows Google to classify if the website uses a static placeholder in the username field which can be safely overwritten without deleting valuable user-specific data. Google cannot reconstruct the value from this hash.
When you’re signed in to Chrome with your Google Account on desktop, Chrome may offer you to use credentials you’ve saved to your account, to generate a strong password, or to save credentials to your Google Account. To access credentials in your Google Account, Chrome may ask you to re-authenticate to your Google Account. Credentials from your Google Account will be available on the device while you’re signed in, even when you are offline. If sync isn’t enabled, when you sign out of Chrome, all credentials stored in your Google Account are removed from Chrome on the device. While signed in to Chrome, you can choose to store a credential after you have signed into a site to your Google Account or locally to the device. Locally-saved credentials are not deleted when you sign out of Chrome. After you have used a locally-saved credential to sign into a site, Chrome may also offer you to move the locally stored credentials to your account.
When you sign in to a site, Chrome may give you a warning if the username/password have been exposed as a result of a data breach on some website or app. The feature is available on all platforms but only to the users signed in with a Google account. On Android the feature is only available if sync is also enabled, due to the way the accounts are managed by the OS. Being signed in to a Google account is a technical requirement that prevents abuse of the API. When you sign in to a website, Chrome will send a hashed copy of your username and password to Google encrypted with a secret key only known to Chrome. No one, including Google, is able to derive your username or password from this encrypted copy. From the response, Chrome can tell if the submitted username and password appear in the database of leaked credentials. The final resolution is done locally; Google doesn’t know whether or not the credential is present in the database. The feature can be disabled in settings under Sync and Google services. On desktop and Android versions of Chrome, this feature is not available if Safe Browsing is turned off.
Using the same secure method described above, you can check all the saved passwords against the public data breaches in the “Passwords” section of Chrome’s settings. Once you’ve run a password check, Chrome will show a list of breached passwords. If a password in this list is outdated, you can manually edit it to store the current version. If you choose to edit, the new username/password pair will be checked automatically but only if the feature described above is not disabled.
Also, if you choose, you can bring your Autofill data with you to all your Chrome-enabled devices by syncing it as part of your browser settings (see the “Sign In to Chrome” section of this document). If you choose to sync Autofill information, field values are sent as described in “Sign In to Chrome”; otherwise, field values are not sent.
If you enable Chrome’s credential provider extension in iOS Autofill passwords settings, Chrome will be able to autofill the passwords currently saved in Chrome into other apps on your device, such as Safari. The extension does not store Chrome passwords. If the device's keychain or the iCloud keychain are enabled as a credential provider, then the extension will prompt you to save the recently used password in the keychain.
When you’re signed into Chrome with your Google Account, Chrome may offer to save payment cards and related billing addresses into payment data under the same Google Account, and include cards from your account among the autofill suggestions on payment web forms. If you're not signed in, Chrome offers to save your credit cards locally. If the card is not stored locally, you will be prompted for your CVV code or device authentication, such as Touch ID, Windows Hello, or Android screen lock, each time you use the card. In some versions of Chrome, it is possible to store a card to Google Payments and locally in Chrome at the same time, in which case Chrome will not ask for a CVV or device authentication confirmation. If you have cards stored in this way, their local copies will persist until you sign out of your Google account, at which point the local copy will be deleted from your device. If you choose not to store the card locally, you will be prompted for your CVV code or device authentication each time you use the card. You can opt out of using device authentication in the Payment methods section of Chrome settings. If you use a card from Google Payments, Chrome will collect information about your computer and share it with Google Payments to prevent fraudulent use of your card. If you use device authentication to confirm cards from Google Payments, an identifier scoped to a device and signed-in session will be used to ensure that the device and account autofilling the card should have access to it.
To delete credit card information saved in Chrome, follow the “Add and edit credit cards” steps in the Autofill article. When you delete a credit card that's also saved in your Google Payments account, you will be redirected to Google Payments to complete the deletion. After your card has been deleted from your Google Payments account, Chrome will automatically remove that card from your Autofill suggestions.
To save a card locally on the device only, while still being signed in to Chrome with a Google Account, you can add a card from the “Add” button in the “Payment methods” section in Chrome settings. If you would like to sign into Google web services, like google.com, without Chrome asking whether you want to save your info to your Google Account, you can turn off Chrome sign-in. If you have sync turned on, you can disable syncing payment methods and addresses to Google Pay under “Sync” in Chrome settings. You can also turn the Payments Autofill feature off altogether in settings.
Chrome also supports the PaymentRequest API by allowing you to pay for purchases with credit cards from Autofill, Google Payments, and other payment apps already installed on your device. Google Payments and other payment apps are only available on Android devices. PaymentRequest allows the merchant to request the following information: full name, shipping address, billing address, phone number, email, credit card number, credit card expiration, CVV, and Google Payments credentials. Information is not shared with the merchant until you agree.
Google Chrome supports the Geolocation API, which provides access to fine-grained user location information with your consent.
By default, Chrome will request your permission when a web page asks for your location information, and does not send any location information to the web page unless you explicitly consent.
Furthermore, whenever you are on a web page which is using your location information, Chrome will display a location icon on the right side of the omnibox. You can click on this icon in order to find out more information or manage location settings.
In Chrome’s settings, by clicking “Site Settings” and scrolling to the “Location” section, you can choose to allow all sites to receive your location information, have Chrome ask you every time (the default), or block all sites from receiving your location information. You can also configure exceptions for specific web sites.
In the Android version of Chrome, your default search engine automatically receives your location when you conduct a search. On the iOS version of Chrome, by default your location is sent to Google if you conduct a search from the omnibox. Read more about how your default search engine handles geolocation and how to manage your settings in the Omnibox section of the whitepaper.
If you do choose to share your location with a web site, Chrome will send local network information to Google (also used by other browsers such as Mozilla Firefox) in order to estimate your location. This local network information can include data about nearby Wi-Fi access points or cellular signal sites/towers (even if you’re not using them), and your computer’s IP address. The requests are logged, and aggregated and anonymized before being used to operate, support, and improve the overall quality of Google Chrome and Google Location Services.
For further reading on the privacy and user interface implications of the Geolocation API (as well as other HTML5 APIs), see ”Practical Privacy Concerns in a Real World Browser” written by two Google Chrome team members.
Speech to text
Chrome supports the Web Speech API, a mechanism for converting speech to text on a web page. It uses Google's servers to perform the conversion. Using the feature sends an audio recording to Google (audio data is not sent directly to the page itself), along with the domain of the website using the API, your default browser language and the language settings of the website. Cookies are not sent along with these requests.
Google Assistant on Chrome OS devices
The Google Assistant is integrated into some models of Chrome OS devices. If you opt in to the feature, Chrome OS listens for you to say "Ok Google" and sends the audio of the next thing you say, plus a few seconds before, to Google. Detection of the phrase "Ok Google" is performed locally on your computer, and the audio is only sent to Google after it detects "Ok Google". You can enable or disable this feature in Google Assistant Settings.
Enabling this feature in Chrome Settings will cause Chrome to listen whenever the screen is unlocked. On Chrome OS devices with a local audio processor, the device also listens when the device is asleep. On these devices, The Google Assistant feature only works if Voice & Audio Activity is enabled for your Google account. Chrome will prompt you to enable Voice & Audio Activity for the associated Google account if it is disabled.
Once the audio has been converted to text, a search with that text is submitted to Google. If you have used the “Ok Google” search before on a device but turned off Voice & Audio Activity later, your device is still capable of processing your voice and sending the audio to Google but the voice is deleted shortly thereafter.
You can determine your Chrome OS device’s behavior by examining the text in the "Search and Assistant" section of settings.
Google Assistant on Android devices
You can quickly complete tasks on the web using the Google Assistant in Chrome on certain Android devices . If you opt-in to this feature, you can speak to the Google Assistant and ask it to search websites. It also can fill out forms on your behalf, or speed up the checkout experience.
For example, if you issue a command to the Google Assistant e.g. “search Wikipedia for Henry VIII”, the Google Assistant in Chrome will respond by opening Chrome to Wikipedia, sending the query as a text string to Google Assistant in Chrome, and searching for “Henry VIII” on the Wikipedia page.
As another example, if you ask the Google Assistant to help you purchase tickets for an upcoming movie, then the address of the website you are viewing, your credit card information, and your email address will be shared with Google to complete the transaction and make it possible for you to receive the purchase receipt and movie ticket.
If you opt-in to this feature, the Google Assistant in Chrome will send data to Google in order to complete the command you issued. When the command is issued, the Google Assistant in Chrome shares back to Google the website’s URL to validate that the webpage is allowed to be automated by Google Assistant in Chrome and to receive the instructions on how to complete the task (e.g. on how to fill out a form).
At the time the command you issued is executed, additional information can be shared. Depending on the command you issued, the information shared with Google can include the address of the website you are viewing, your email address, your name, your delivery and billing address, your credit card information, and possibly the username you use to log into the website. This information is not stored by Google — rather, this information is passed on to the third party website to complete the command you issued to the Google Assistant. Additionally, information about your system is collected in order to improve the product and to debug issues.
To personalize future actions Google Assistant in Chrome will save configuration information about the command you issued to improve your future experiences (for example: seat selections, number and types of movie tickets, etc.). This information is saved to your Google Account.
Some Google Assistant features are not available on Incognito tabs. You can turn off the ability to use the Google Assistant in Chrome on your Android device by toggling the “Google Assistant for Chrome” option in Chrome’s settings.
Google Cloud Print
The Google Cloud Print feature allows you to print documents from your browser over the Internet. You do not need a direct connection between the machine that executes Chrome and your printer.
If you choose to print a web page via Cloud Print, Chrome will generate a PDF of this website and upload it over an encrypted network connection to Google’s servers. If you choose to print other kinds of documents, they may be uploaded as raw documents to Google’s servers.
A print job will be downloaded by either a Chrome browser (“Connector”) or a Cloud Print capable printer that you selected when printing the website. In some cases the print job must be submitted to a third-party service to print (HP’s ePrint, for example).
The print job is deleted from Google’s servers when any of three criteria is met:
- You delete the print job
- The job has been printed and marked as printed by the printer/connector
- The job has been queued on Google’s servers for 30 days
You can manage your printers and print jobs on the Google Cloud Print website.
SSL certificate reporting
Chrome stores locally a list of expected SSL certificate information for a variety of high-value websites, in an effort to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. For Google websites and other websites that choose to opt in, Chrome will report a possible attack or misconfiguration. If the certificate provided by the web server doesn’t match the expected signature, Chrome reports information about the SSL certificate chain to Google or to a report collection endpoint of the website's choosing. Chrome sends these reports only for certificate chains that use a public root of trust.
You can enable this feature by opting in to report data relevant to security, as described in the Safe Browsing section. While you are opted in, two kinds of reports may be sent to Google’s security team. Each time you see an SSL error page, a report will be sent containsing the SSL certificate chain, the server's hostname, the local time, and relevant details about the validation error and SSL error page type. Additionally, each time a mismatch between different certificate verifiers is detected, a report will be sent containing the certificate chain and the verification result.
Because Chrome sends these reports for all certificate chains, even those that chain to a private root of trust, these chains can contain personally identifiable information. You can opt out anytime by unchecking the box “Help Improve Chrome security” in “Privacy and security > Security”.
The SSL certificate reporting feature is not available on Chrome iOS.
Installed Applications and Extensions
Users can install external apps and extensions for the desktop versions of Chrome to add features to or customize their Chrome browsers. Installing an application or extension from the Chrome Web Store directly or via an inline installation flow on a third-party site involves a request to the Chrome Web Store for details about the application. This request includes cookies, and if you’re logged into Google when you install an application, that installation is recorded as part of your Google account. The store uses this information to recommend applications to you in the future, and in aggregate to evaluate application popularity and usage. As noted above, applications and extensions are updated via Google Update.
Your device may receive push messages from the backend servers of apps and extensions installed in Chrome, websites that you grant the “notification” permission to, and your default search engine. Disabling push messages from your default search engine is done in the same way as disabling push messages from any site, by visiting the “Notifications” section of “Site settings”.
Push message data is sent over a secure channel from the developer through Google’s infrastructure to Chrome on your device, which can wake up apps, extensions, and websites (including your default search engine) to deliver the message. The developer may end-to-end encrypt the message data, or may send it in a form such that Google servers process it as plain text. Google servers retain up to 4 weeks’ worth of messages to ensure delivery to users even if their devices are offline at the time of the initial pushing.
If the notification permission is set to “granted” for any website (including the default search engine), or you have an app or extension installed that uses push messaging, then Chrome provides the app’s, extension’s, or website’s server with one or more registration tokens that can be used to send messages to the entity (app, extension, or website). Websites you visit in Incognito mode are not allowed to send you push messages and therefore cannot get a registration token.
When you uninstall an app or extension, revoke the notification permission for a website, or clear cookies for a permitted website, its registration token is revoked and will not be reused, even if the same app or extension is re-installed or the same website is re-visited. Registration tokens used by Chrome components such as Sync are revoked once they are no longer in use (for example, when the user disables Sync). When a registration token is revoked, the associated entity on your device stops receiving messages sent from its developer’s server.
The registration tokens that are passed to entities contain an encrypted device ID, which is used for routing the messages. Google can decrypt the device ID, but other entities cannot, and the encryption is designed so that two registration tokens for the same device ID cannot be correlated. On desktop versions of Chrome, the device ID is reset when the Chrome profile is removed, or when neither Chrome Sync nor any of the entities requires it for push messaging. On Android, the lifetime of the device ID is governed by the operating system and is independent of Chrome. Any messages routed to registration tokens containing a revoked device ID will not be delivered.
Chrome custom tabs
On Android devices, an app developer may use a Custom Tab to show web content when you click on a URL from their app. A Custom Tab may look different from a regular Chrome tab, for example it may have app-specified visual style, and the absence of an editable URL bar. Despite the different visual style a Custom Tab may have, the data sent and received in the Custom Tab, such as cookies, saved passwords and browsing history function the same way they do in a normal Chrome tab. The Custom Tab is an app-customized view using the same underlying user profile.
With Chrome Custom Tabs, an Android app developer may also specify custom actions in the Chrome toolbar and overflow menu that are relevant to their app, for example,"share", “save page”, “copy URL”. If you tap on such a button, the address of the current website is shared with the application.
An application can request Chrome to pre-render a given URL in the background. This allows Chrome to show you a pre-loaded site instantly when you open it from the app. At the same time it allows an application to set cookies in your browser in the background. To disable pre-rendering, you can uncheck "Preload pages for faster browsing and searching" in the “Privacy and security > Cookies” section of Chrome’s settings.
Trusted Web Activities are a form of Chrome Custom Tab where the top bar is not present, allowing web browsing with no browser UI but with access to the cookie jar. They can only be used to view web content on an origin that the client app can prove that it owns using Digital Asset Links. If the user navigates off this origin the the top bar reappears.
When the client app is uninstalled or has its data cleared through Android Settings, Chrome will allow the user to clear data for the linked origin.
Continue where you left off
If you have selected the option to “Continue where you left off” in settings on desktop versions of Chrome, when you open Chrome, it attempts to bring you right back to the way things were when the browser was closed. Chrome reloads the tabs you had open and persists session information to get you up and running as quickly as possible. This feature effectively extends a browsing session across restarts. In this mode, session cookies are no longer deleted when the browser closes; instead, they remain available on restart to keep you logged into your favorite sites.
On desktop versions of Chrome, this feature can be enabled or disabled in Chrome settings. On Chrome OS, it is enabled by default.
On OS X, when you restart your device, a checkbox in the OS confirmation dialog asks you whether you want to re-open applications and windows after restart. If you check this box, Chrome restores tabs and windows, as well as the session cookies, even if you have disabled "Continue where you left off" on Chrome.
On mobile versions of Chrome, this feature is always enabled without a setting.
Chrome is constantly evolving to better meet the needs of users and the web. To ensure new features are providing the best experience and working correctly, they may be enabled for a subset of users before they are fully launched. For example, if we improve how page loading works in Chrome, we may try it out for 1% of users to ensure that it doesn't crash or run slower before launching to everyone. This is done through a system called "Chrome Variations" - also known as "field trials".
A given Chrome installation may be participating in a number of different variations (for different features) at the same time. These fall into two categories:
- Low entropy variations, which are randomized based on a number from 0 to (13 bits) that's randomly generated by each Chrome installation on the first run.
- High entropy variations, which are randomized using the usage statistics token for Chrome installations that have usage statistics reporting enabled.
Other factors may additionally inform the variations assigned to a Chrome installation, such as country (determined by your IP address), operating system, Chrome version and other parameters.
Usage statistics and crash reports are tagged with all variations a client participates in, including both low entropy and high entropy variations. These reports, which also contain a pseudonymous client identifier, can be disabled in Chrome settings.
Additionally, a subset of low entropy variations are included in network requests sent to Google. The combined state of these variations is non-identifying, since it is based on a bit low entropy value (see above). These are transmitted using the "X-Client-Data" HTTP header, which contains a list of active variations. On Android, this header may include a limited set of external server-side experiments, which may affect the Chrome installation. This header is used to evaluate the effect on Google servers - for example, a networking change may affect YouTube video load speed or an Omnibox ranking update may result in more helpful Google Search results.
On Android Chrome, in certain cases these low entropy variations may also be sent to Google apps when cross-app communication occurs to support a Chrome feature; for example, when searching with Google Lens. This information is used to better understand how Chrome experiments affect that Google feature: for example, Chrome memory usage change could affect how long it takes an action in the Google app to complete.
You can reset the variations used by your Chrome installation by starting it with the “--reset-variation-state” command line flag.
Do Not Track
If you enable the “Do Not Track” preference in Chrome’s settings, Chrome will send a DNT:1 HTTP header with your outgoing HTTP, HTTPS and SPDY browsing traffic (Chrome cannot, however, guarantee that NPAPI plugins also send the header.) The header will not be sent with system traffic such as the geolocation, metrics or device management services.
The effect of Do Not Track depends on whether a website responds to the request, and how the request is interpreted. For example, some websites may respond to this request by showing you ads that aren't based on other websites you've visited. Many websites will still collect and use your browsing data - for example, to improve security; to provide content, services, ads and recommendations on their websites; and to generate reporting statistics.
Chrome on iOS now uses WKWebView to provide a more stable and faster browser. As a result of this move, the Do Not Track preference is no longer available due to iOS constraints. If Apple makes changes to allow this feature, Chrome will make Do Not Track available again in iOS.
Chrome ships with an Adobe Flash Player implementation that is based on the Pepper API. Flash and other Pepper-based plugins may ask you for “Access to your computer”. If you grant this permission, the plugin is granted unsandboxed access. This allows content providers to offer you access to DRM protected content like videos or music but may have security and privacy implications, so consider carefully whether you trust a plugin or website with this privilege.
Some websites encrypt media to protect against unauthorized access and copying. When users play media from these sites, they typically log into the site, which authenticates the user, and then digital rights management negotiates a key exchange for the decryption and playback of the media.
For HTML5 sites, this key exchange is done using the Encrypted Media Extensions API. The implementation of that API is tightly coupled with the browser to protect user privacy and security, through Content Decryption Modules (CDM), which are provided by digital rights management solutions such as Google Widevine or Microsoft PlayReady.
When a user asks Chrome to play encrypted HTML5 media (for example, watching a movie on Google Play Movies), Chrome will generate a request for a license to decrypt that media. This license request contains an automatically generated request ID, which is created by the Content Decryption Module, as well as proof that the CDM is legitimate. After generation, the license request is typically sent to a license server managed by either the content website or Google. Neither the license request, the proof, nor the request ID include any personally identifying information. After being sent, the license request is not stored locally on the user’s device.
As part of the license request, Chrome also generates a unique session ID which does not contain personally identifying information. This session ID is sent to the license server, and when the server returns a license the session ID is used to decrypt the media. The session ID may be stored locally even after the site has been closed. The license may also be stored locally for offline consumption of protected content. Session ID and licenses may be cleared by the user in Chrome using Clear Browsing Data with “Cookies and other site data” selected.
When returning a license, the site license server may include a client ID, generated by the site. This client ID is unique to the user and the site, it is not shared between sites. If provided, the client ID is stored locally and included by Chrome in subsequent license requests to that site. The client ID may be cleared by the user in Chrome using Clear Browsing Data with “Cookies and other site data” selected.
On some platforms, the website may additionally request verification that the device is eligible to play specific types of protected content. On Chrome OS, this is known as Verified Access. In this case, Google creates a certificate using a unique hardware identifier for the device. This hardware ID identifies the device, but does not identify the user. If the user agrees, Google receives the hardware ID and generates a certificate verifying the device for the requested site. The certificate does not include the hardware ID or any other information that could permanently identify the device. Certificates are stored locally similar to other cached browsing data, and may be cleared by the user in Chrome using Clear Browsing Data with “Cookies and other site data” selected. On Android, this is called Provisioning. See “MediaDrm Provisioning” for more details.
Some sites use Flash instead of HTML5. If a website you visit chooses to use Adobe Flash Access DRM protection, Chrome for Windows and Chrome OS will give Adobe Flash access to a device identifier. You can deny this access in the settings under Content Settings, Protected content, and reset the ID using Clear Browsing Data with “Cookies and other site data” selected.
In order to give you access to licensed music, the Google Play Music app can retrieve a device identifier that is derived from your hard drive partitions or, on a Chrome OS or Linux installation, from a unique file on your disk. This identifier can be reset by reinstalling your operating system.
Chrome on Android uses Android MediaDrm to play protected content. As on ChromeOS, the website may request verification that the device is eligible to do so. This is achieved by MediaDrm provisioning. A provisioning request is sent to Google, which generates a certificate that will be stored on the device and sent to the site whenever you play protected content. The information in the provisioning request and in the certificate vary depending on the Android version. In all cases, the information can be used to identify the device, but never the user.
On Android K and L, the device only needs to be provisioned once and the certificate is shared by all applications running on the device. The request contains a hardware ID, and the certificate contains a stable device ID, both of which could be used to permanently identify the device.
On Android M or later, MediaDrm supports per-origin provisioning. Chrome randomly generates an origin ID for each website to be provisioned. Even though the request still contains a hardware ID, the certificate is different for each website, so that different websites cannot cross-reference the same device.
On Android O or later on some devices, provisioning can be scoped to a single application. The request will contain a hardware ID, but the certificate will be different for each application, in addition to each site, so different applications cannot cross-reference the same device.
Provisioning can be controlled by the “Protected media” permission in the “Site settings” menu. On Android versions K and L, Chrome will always ask you to grant this permission before provisioning starts. On later versions of Android, this permission is granted by default. You can clear the provisioned certificates anytime using the “Cookies and other site data” option in the Clear browsing data dialog.
Chrome also performs MediaDrm pre-provisioning to support playback of protected content in cases where the provisioning server is not accessible, such as in-flight entertainment. Chrome randomly generates a list of origin IDs and provision them in advance for future use.
On Android versions with per-device provisioning, where provisioning requires a permission, Chrome does not support pre-provisioning. Playback might still work because the device could have already been provisioned by other applications.
On Android versions with per-origin provisioning, Chrome pre-provisions itself once the user attempts to play protected content. As the provisioning for the first playback already involved sending a stable hardware ID to Google, the subsequent pre-provisioning of additional origin IDs introduces no new privacy implications. If provisioning fails and there is no pre-provisioned origin ID, Chrome may ask for permission to further fallback to per-device provisioning.
On devices with per-application provisioning, Chrome pre-provisions itself automatically on startup.
When you sign into a Chrome OS device, Chrome on Android, or a desktop Chrome profile with an account associated with a Google Apps domain, or if your desktop browser is enrolled in Chrome Browser Cloud Management, Chrome checks whether the domain has configured enterprise policies. If so, the Chrome OS user session, Chrome profile, or enrolled Chrome Browser is assigned a unique ID, and registered as belonging to that Google Apps domain. Any configured policies are applied. To revoke the registration, remove the Chrome OS user, sign out of Chrome on Android, remove the desktop profile, or remove the enrollment token and device token for Chrome Browser Cloud Management.
Additionally, Chrome OS devices can be enrolled to a Google Apps domain by a domain admin. This will enforce enterprise policies for the entire device, such as providing shared network configurations and restricting access to developer mode. When a Chrome OS device is enrolled to a domain, then a unique device ID is registered to the device. In order to revoke the registration, the admin will need to wipe the entire Chrome OS device.
Registered profiles and devices check for policy changes periodically (every 3 hours by default). In some cases, the server pushes policy changes to the client without waiting for Chrome's periodic check. Unregistered profiles check whether a policy has been turned on for their domain each time Chrome starts up.
The policy list contains details about the types of configurations that are available via Cloud Policy.
If you enable Lite Mode (previously known as “Data Saver”), Chrome may send your traffic through Google's optimizing servers to reduce the amount of data downloaded and speed up your page loads.
Chrome will share the URLs you visit with Google, as well as usage and performance statistics for those sites so Chrome can better optimize them. Cookies for sites you visit are not shared with Google. Logs are not associated with your Google Account, and all log entries are removed within 14 days. Pages loaded in Incognito will not use the optimizing servers and usage and performance statistics will not be reported.
To save Lite Mode users data, image requests may be sent to a Google image optimization server which will fetch the image from the origin and return a compressed version to Chrome. To avoid optimizing private images, Chrome first asks Google for a list of image URLs known to be on the page according to a crawl of the site from a Google data center. Only images on that list will be sent to the optimization server. Image URLs on the page that were not seen during the Google crawl will not be optimized, and no information about those URLs will be sent to Google.
Using Chrome with a kid’s Google Account
Chrome for Android offers features to be used when signed in with a kid's Google Account and automatically signs in a kid's account if they've signed into the Android device. Chrome uses the Sync feature to sync settings configured by parents to the kid’s account. You can read about how Sync data is used in the Sign in section of this Whitepaper.
In order for the configured settings to apply to a kid’s account, Chrome does not support the following features for a kid’s Google Account: signing out of Chrome, Incognito mode, and deleting browsing history from within Chrome. Browsing history can still be removed in the Chrome section of the Google Dashboard.
By default, first party cookie blocking is disabled when Chrome is signed in with a kid’s account. Parents can go to chrome.google.com/manage/family to allow their kids to block first party cookies. However, blocking cookies signs kids out of Google web products such as Google Search or YouTube and therefore prevents these products from providing any features designed for kids’ Google Accounts.
When Chrome is used with a kid’s Google Account, information about the kid’s requests to access blocked content is sent to Google and made visible to the kid’s parent(s) on chrome.google.com/manage/family and in the Google Family Link app. If the kid’s browsing mode is set to “Try to block mature sites”, Chrome will send a request to the Google SafeSearch service for each navigation in order to block access to sites that have been classified as containing mature content.
Incognito and Guest Mode
Incognito mode in Chrome is a temporary browsing mode. It ensures that you don’t leave browsing history and cookies on your computer. The browsing history and cookies are deleted only once you have closed the last incognito window. Incognito mode cannot make you invisible on the internet. Websites that you navigate to may record your visits. Going incognito doesn’t hide your browsing from your employer, your internet service provider, or the websites you visit.
Browsing as a Guest in Chrome allows you to use somebody else's computer without modifying their profile. For example, no bookmarks or passwords get stored on their computer. Note that Guest mode does not protect you for example, if the computer you are using is infected by a keylogger that records what you type.
iOS 8 and Mac OS X Yosemite Handoff Support
While browsing in a standard (i.e. non-Incognito) session, Chrome will share your current URL with iOS 8+ to support the Handoff feature that was added in OS X Yosemite. This information is only sent to Apple devices that are paired with your iOS device, and the data is encrypted in transit.
More information is available at Apple Support, Apple Developers, and in the Apple iOS Security Guide. Chrome support for this feature can be disabled in Chrome settings.
A FIDO U2F Security Key provides a non-phishable credential which can be used to authenticate a user. This mitigates the risk of various kinds of man-in-the-middle attacks in which websites try to steal your password and use it later.
To prevent abuse, a website is required to be delivered over a secure connection (HTTPS), and to register the security key before it can be used for identification. Once a website is registered with a specific security key, that security key will provide a persistent identifier, regardless of which computer it is plugged into, or whether you're in incognito or guest mode, but you must physically interact with the security key to give a website access to an identifier (by, for example, touching it, or plugging it in).
The Physical Web lets you see a list of URLs being broadcast by objects in the environment around you. Google Chrome looks for Physical Web devices with Bluetooth Low Energy beacons that are broadcasting URLs using the Eddystone protocol. Bluetooth signals can be received from 90 feet away or more, depending on signal strength and the user’s environment (although the range is often much shorter, due to obstacles and signal noise). If the Physical Web feature is enabled, Chrome sends detected URLs to Google’s Physical Web Service (PWS) via a cookieless HTTPS request. For each URL, the PWS obtains the title of the web page, filters out unsafe results, and returns a ranking based on non-personalized signals about the quality and relevance of the web page.
The Physical Web feature is available on Chrome on iOS and Android. Users will need to turn on Bluetooth to use the feature.
If Android users have location settings enabled on both their device and in Chrome, they will receive a notification the first time they are near a beacon that will give them the option to turn on the Physical Web feature. This beacon’s URL is not sent to Google’s PWS unless the Physical Web feature is enabled. Users can also enable (or disable) the feature in the Privacy settings. Once a user enables the feature, Chrome scans for nearby devices for a few seconds each time the user unlocks the mobile device in use and sends them to the PWS in order to obtain more information about the beacon. The user receives a silent notification when Chrome finds a nearby URL.
On iOS devices, users can enable (or disable) the feature in the Privacy settings or by adding the Chrome widget to their Today view in the notification center. Additionally, the feature is automatically enabled for users who have location enabled on their device, granted Chrome the location permission, and have granted Google the geolocation permission. Chrome scans for nearby devices whenever it is open in the foreground. When Chrome finds nearby URLs, users will see them as omnibox suggestions. Additionally, Chrome scans for nearby devices for a few seconds when the Today widget is displayed in the notification center.
Google Chrome supports the Web Bluetooth API, which provides websites with access to nearby Bluetooth Low Energy devices with your consent.
Chrome does not let any page communicate with a device unless you explicitly consent. When a web page asks to pair with a device, Chrome will ask you to choose which device the web page should access, if any. Selecting a device for one page does not give other pages access to the device you have chosen, and does not allow that page to access other devices. Currently, permission for a page to communicate with a device is usually revoked when the page is reloaded, and is always revoked when Chrome is restarted.
Chrome data that Android sends to Google
If the Android Backup Service is enabled on your device, some of your Chrome preferences will be saved and stored on Google servers. For Nexus and Android One devices, it is described under “Back up your data and settings with Android Backup Service” in this article. For other Android devices, you may be able to find help by looking up your device on this page. When setting up a new Android device, you may request that it copies the preferences from a previously set up device. If you do so, Android may restore backed up Chrome preferences when Chrome is first installed. The new device only copies the preferences if automatic restore is enabled (see “Restore your data and settings” in the same article), Chrome was signed into an account when the backup was made, and the new Android device is signed into that same account.
Chrome’s backup data for a particular device may also be restored if you uninstall and then later re-install Chrome on that device. This will only happen if automatic restore is enabled and the device is signed into the account that Chrome was signed into when the backup was made.
Integration with Digital Wellbeing
If you opt-in to see sites you have visited and set site timers in the Digital Wellbeing app on Android, Chrome will report which websites you’ve visited and the length of time spent in each of them to the app. Sites visited in incognito mode will not be reported to the Digital Wellbeing app.
To continually improve the experience of Digital Wellbeing, the app will share with Google the websites that you set a timer on and how long you have visited them.
You can opt out of this feature in the Digital Wellbeing app or in Chrome’s privacy settings anytime.
A video app made just for children
YouTube Kids was created to give children a more contained environment that makes it simpler and more fun for them to explore on their own, and easier for parents and caregivers to guide their journey as they discover new and exciting interests along the way.
A safer online experience for children
We work hard to keep the videos on YouTube Kids family-friendly and use a mix of automated filters built by our engineering teams, human review and feedback from parents to protect our youngest users online. But no system is perfect and inappropriate videos can slip through, so we're constantly working to improve our safeguards and offer more features to help parents create the right experience for their families.
Customise your child's experience with Parental Controls
Limit screen time: Set a time limit for how long your children can watch and help encourage their transition from watching to doing.
Keep up with what they watch: Simply check the 'watch it again' page and you'll always know what they've watched and the newest interests that they're exploring.
Blocking: Don't like a video? Block the video or whole channel and never see it again.
Flagging: You can always alert us to inappropriate content by flagging a video for review. Flagged videos are reviewed 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Create individual experiences as unique as your children
Create up to eight child profiles, each with their own viewing preferences, video recommendations and settings. Choose from 'Approved Content Only' mode or select an age category that fits your child: 'Preschool', 'Younger' or 'Older'.
Select the 'Approved Content Only' mode if you want to hand-pick the videos, channels and/or collections that you've approved your child to watch. In this mode, children won't be able to search for videos.The 'Preschool' Mode curates videos that promote creativity, playfulness, learning and exploration. The 'Younger' Mode allows children aged 5–8 to explore their interests in a wide variety of topics including songs, cartoons and crafts. While our 'Older' Mode gives children aged 9 and up the chance to search and explore additional content such as popular music and gaming videos for children.
All kinds of videos for all kinds of children
Our library is filled with family-friendly videos on all different topics, igniting your children's inner creativity and playfulness. It's everything from their favourite shows and music to learning how to build a model volcano (or make slime ;-), and everything in between.
Other important information:
Parental setup is required to ensure the best experience possible for your child.
YouTube Kids contains paid ads in order to offer the app for free. Your child may also see videos from YouTube creators with commercial content in them that are not paid ads.The Privacy Notice for Google Accounts managed with Family Link describes our privacy practices when your child uses YouTube Kids with their Google Account. When your child uses YouTube Kids without signing into their Google Account, the YouTube Kids Privacy Notice applies.
Youtube spell how you
Capt. Michael Burnham and crew face a dire threat in ST: Discovery S4 trailer
We didn't get a new trailer for the fourth season of Star Trek: Discovery during the Star Trek Day festivities last month, although we did get a premiere date: November 18, But we didn't have to wait that long. The much-anticipated new trailer debuted during Discovery’s New York Comic Con panel, which included cast members Sonequa Martin-Green, Anthony Rapp, Mary Wiseman, Wilson Cruz, David Ajala, and Blu del Barrio, as well as showrunner and executive producer Michelle Paradise.
(Spoilers for prior seasons below.)
As I've written previously, in S3, Michael Burnham (Martin-Green), Discovery, and her crew arrived in the future and found that Control's plan had been thwarted: life still exists. But the galaxy was very different thanks to something called The Burn, a catastrophic event that caused all the dilithium in the Milky Way to explode and destroy much of Starfleet in the process. In the aftermath, with no warp drive possible, all the planets had become disconnected and were no longer governed by the Federation. Michael did, however, manage to locate one sole Federation liaison on a remote space station with the help of a new ally, Book (David Ajala).
The Discovery crew reunited with what was left of Starfleet, figured out what caused The Burn, and managed to defeat a rival syndicate known as the Emerald Chain. In the S3 season finale, planets were beginning to rejoin the Federation, and Discovery set out to bring dilithium from a nebula to planets that had been cut off by the Burn, presumably resurrecting the warp drive and enabling travel between distant worlds once again. Burnham finally became captain of Discovery after Saru opted to return to his home planet of Kaminar for a spell. And we bid a sorrowful farewell to Philippa Georgiou (Michelle Yeoh); a spinoff series is rumored to be in the works.Advertisement
According to the official synopsis, in S4, "Captain Burnham and the crew of the USS Discovery face a threat unlike any they've ever encountered. With Federation and non-Federation worlds alike feeling the impact, they must confront the unknown and work together to ensure a hopeful future for all." Much of the main cast is also returning for S4: Doug Jones as Saru, Rapp as Stamets, Wiseman as Tilly, Emily Coutts as Keyla Detmer, and Cruz as Dr. Culber. S3 additions Book (Ajala), Adira (del Barrio), Gray (Ian Alexander), and Starfleet Commander-in-Chief Vance (Oded Fehr) will also be returning.
The first trailer dropped in April and mentioned a "gravitational anomaly" five light years in diameter moving through the galaxy—clearly the formable threat hinted at in the synopsis. Highlights included spiffy new Starfleet uniforms, as well as glimpses of Vulcans and Book's cat, Grudge.
This new trailer focuses even more on the mysterious anomaly—"a threat like none our galaxy has ever faced before," per Michael. Given that billions of lives are at risk, it's serious enough to warrant a gathering of Federation (and presumably non-Federation) leaders to strategize how to combine their efforts to meet the danger head-on. On a more personal level, Michael is struggling to balance her new leadership role with her penchant for taking risks and bending Starfleet rules. "Your acts of bravery are huge swings of the pendulum," she is told. "But there is a very fine line between a pendulum and a wrecking ball."
But that's precisely the combination of qualities that could make Michael a truly great captain, assuming she and her crew survive their jump into the anomaly itself. "Once we enter the anomaly, we are going where no one has gone before," Michael says from her captain's chair. What could be more true to the spirit of Star Trek than that?
Star Trek: Discovery S4 will premiere on November 18, , on Paramount+.
Listing image by YouTube/Paramount+
SofM picked this shocking Summoner Spell in Spring, and now River too
After losing their first match to Royal Never Give Up, PSG Talon were looking for a win on Day 2 of the Worlds Group Stage against Hanwha Life Esports.
During the draft phase, Kim River Dong-woo locked in jungle meta pick Talon. But it wasnt until we went in-game to see each players Summoner Spells when viewers realized that he wasnt running the usual Smite-Flash or Smite-Ignite, but instead, Smite-Teleport.
Out of the eight times Talon has been played in the jungle so far at Worlds , this is the first time a pro player is running Summoner Spell Teleport, and is reminiscent of Sunings Lê SofM Quang Duy in the LPL Spring Split where he ran this unusual Summoner Spell on Kayn.
How PSG Talons jungler River utilized Summoner Spell Teleport in-game against Hanwha Life Esports
Collectively with their mid and top laners, PSG Talon had a triple Teleport set-up going. Besides using Teleport to get to objectives faster, River also coordinated well with his team for offensive plays.
In the mid game, Jeong Chovy Ji-hoons Azir was solo pushing the outer tier one tower at bot lane. Seeing that he was isolated from the rest of his team, PSG Talon made their move.
River and Su Hanabi Chia-Hsiangs Gwen channeled Teleport on two separate wards, one in the river, and one in lane, which completely cut Chovy off from behind, guaranteeing their first kill on the board.
After many back-and-forth skirmishes, where both teams secured three dragons each, PSG Talon finally managed to pull away with a sizeable gold lead.
Taking down two members of Hanwha Life Esports, PSG Talon secured a late game Baron 37 minutes in, and caught out the remaining three in the mid lane. Recognizing that no one was defending the Nexus, River immediately teleported into the base with Hanabi while the rest chased off Hanwha Life Esports from their home.
Who needs Flash when youve got Yuumi on your team anyway?
PSG Talon will take on Fnatic on Day 3 of the Worlds Group Stage at 10 p.m. GMT+8, broadcasted live on Riot Games’ official channels on Twitch and YouTube.
READ MORE: PSG Talon’s River self-studied Mandarin to become a better jungler
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